Constructivist LearningA Psychological Theory
What is Constructivist Learning Theory? The essence of constructivist theory is the idea that learners must individually discover and transform complex information if they are to make it their own.Thus, Constructivist Learning Theory is concerned with: How learners make (construct) meaning from their own experiences.How teachers can organize learning experiences to aid students in meaning-making.
Brain Research & Constructivist Learning The brain is a complex adaptive systemPerhaps the most potent feature of the brain is its capacity to function on many levels and in many ways simultaneously. Thoughts, emotions, imagination, predispositions and physiology operate concurrently and interactively as the entire system interacts with and exchanges information with its environment. Moreover, there are emergent properties of the brain as a whole system that can not be recognized nor understood when the parts alone are explored.
Brain Research & Constructivist Learning The Brain is Plastic Its hard wiring is shaped by the experiences that people have. The brain can rewire: itself with every new stimulation, experience, and behaviorThere are predetermined sequences of development in childhood, including windows of opportunity for laying down the basic hardware necessary for later learning. This results in tremendous dendrite growth and subsequent pruning. That is why new languages as well as the arts ought to be introduced to children very early in life. And finally, in many respects there is no limit to growth and to the capacities of humans to learn more. Neurons continue to be capable of making new connections throughout life.
Brain Research & Constructivist Learning The search for meaning is innate. In general terms the search for meaning refers to making sense of our experiences. This is survival-oriented and basic to the human brain. While the ways in which we make sense of our experience change over time, the central drive to do so is life long. Something of the extent of human purposes was expressed by Maslow. Thus, the search for meaning ranges from the need to eat and find safety, through the development of relationships and a sense of identity, to an exploration of our potential and the quest for transcendence.
Brain Research & Constructivist Learning Learning occurs through" patterning". In patterning we include schematic maps and categories, both acquired and innate. The brain needs and automatically registers the familiar while simultaneously searching for and responding to novel stimuli. The brain is both scientist and artist, attempting to discern and understand patterns as they occur and giving expression to unique and creative patterns of its own. It resists having meaninglessness imposed on it as in isolated pieces of information unrelated to what makes sense to a particular learner.
Brain Research & Constructivist Learning Emotions are critical to patterning What we learn is influenced and organized by emotions and involving expectations, personal biases and prejudices, self-esteem and the need for social interaction. Emotions and thoughts literally shape each other and cannot be separated. Emotions color meaning. Moreover, the emotional impact of any learning may continue to reverberate long after the specific event that triggers it.
Brain Research & Constructivist Learning Every brain simultaneously perceives and creates parts and wholes. Although there is some truth to the "left-brain right-brain" distinction, that is not the whole story. In a healthy person, both hemispheres interact in every activity, from art and computing to sales and accounting. The "two brain" doctrine is most useful for reminding us that the brain reduces information into parts and perceives holistically at the same time. Effective education recognize this, for instance, by introducing natural "global" projects and ideas from the very beginning
Gestalt Psychology a theory of mind and brain that proposes that the operational principle of the brain is holistic, parallel, and analog, with self-organizing tendencies; or, that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
Gestalt Laws of Patterning
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Count every F in the following text
FINISHED FILES ARE THE RE SULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTI FIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS
Read the following
Left/Right Hemisphere Processing
Faces in Strange Places
Faces in Strange Places
Faces in Strange PlacesMary on a 10 yr. old grilled cheese sandwitchChrist on a PizzaChrist on a Rocking ChairEtc. etc.etc.
Jerome Bruners TheoryLearning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge.The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so. Cognitive structure (i.e., schema, mental models) provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to "go beyond the information given".
Jerome BrunerTeachers needTo understand the relationship between motivation and learning.To understand how structure relates to the whole.To learn to form "global concepts.To learn how to build "coherent patterns of learning. To understand that facts without meaning or context are not learned. To believe that any subject can be taught to any child.
Jerome Bruner Three Modes of PresentationEnactive RepresentationLearning through actionLearning through demonstrationLearning through nonverbal interactionsIconic RepresentationPicturesDiagramsImagesSymbolic RepresentationExperience is translated into languageConcepts and Ideas
Jerome Bruner Sequencing The simplest sequence is:EnactiveIconicSymbolicDiscovery sequencingInductive reasoningProblem solvingDeductive sequencingGoing from generalizations to specifics (Wholeparts)Cause-effect
Domains of Learning Cognitive Domain
Blooms TaxonomyKnowledge (Remembering)
Bernice McCarthy & 4-MAT
Learning Style InventoriesThe Learning Style Questionnaire
Theories of Multiple Intelligence Robert Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Intelligence is mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to ones life
Theories of Multiple Intelligence Howard Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligences
This theory is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Recent advances in cognitive science, developmental psychology and neuroscience suggest that each person's level of intelligence, as it has been traditionally considered, is actually made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties.
Theories of Multiple Intelligence Gardner originally identified 7 faculties which
he labeled as intelligences
*Intelligence, narrowly defined, can be measured by intelligence tests, also called IQ tests. Such tests are among the most accurate (reliable and valid) psychological tests, but they are not intended to measure creativity, personality, character, or wisdom. Intelligence tests take many forms, but the common tests (Stanford-Binet, Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Wechsler-Bellevue I, and others) all measure the same intelligence. The general factor measured by intelligence tests is known as g (see g theory).The fundamental indicator of a general factor is that test scores on a wide range of seemingly unrelated cognitive ability tests (such as sentence completion, arithmetic, and memorization) are positively correlated. People who score highly on one test tend to score highly on all of them. This suggests that the tests are not unrelated, but that they all