2. Constructivism for Hands-On Learning
- Knowledge is constructed by learner
- Teacher guides learner to construct knowledge
- Teacher provides rich context
- Teacher provides learner centered environment
- Teacher facilitates, learner controls
3. Constructivism inthe Classroom
- Students construct new ideas by incorporating new material into the concepts and thought processes already in place.
- Allow student thinking to drive lessons
- Ask thoughtful, open-ended questions
- Encourage metacognition - thinking about how they are learning
- Encourage students to interact with each other and YOU Cooperate and Collaborate.
Reflect and Predict! 4. Goals for Students
- Develop higher level critical thinking
- Understand causes or effects of ideas or actions
- Become engaged in their own learning
- Become active and not passive learners
- Student initiative accepted
- Student ideas respected and encouraged
- Independent thinking encouraged
- Students engage in dialogue
- Students apply knowledge in authentic problem-solving tasks
Brahler & Johnson Remember Blooms Taxonomy! 5. Goals for Teachers
- Ask open-ended questions and allow wait time for responses
- Encourage student autonomy, initiative, and collaboration
- Uses raw data and primary material sources
- Provides authentic learning experiences
- Guide and facilitate learning
Brahler & Johnson 6. Constructivist Classroom: Teachers May Experience Difficulties with Classroom Management
- Teacher loses some control over what learners will learn
- May take longer to cover certain topics
- Testing is more difficult because learning is less structured
- Standardized testing relies on factual recall and lower level thinking
7. Constructivist Activities for Students
- Solve complex and realistic problems
- Work together to solve those problems
- Examine the problems from multiple perspectives
- Take ownership of the learning process (rather than being passive recipients of instruction)
- Become aware of their own role in the knowledge construction process
- Participate in authentic learning tasks that reflect the complexity of the real-world environment in which learners will be using the skills they are learning
8. Dale Carnegies Cone of Learning How do we typically learn best? 9. Three Traditional Learning Styles
- Auditory learners: benefit most from traditional teaching techniques. Auditory learners succeed when information is presented and requested verbally.
- Visual learners: Some students rely upon a visual learning style: "Show me and I'll understand." Visual learners benefit from diagrams, charts, pictures, films, and written directions.
- Kinesthetic learners: Most students excel through kinesthetic means: touching, feeling, experiencing something with hands-on activities.
10. Kinesthetic Learners in Secondary Schools
- "Children enter kindergarten as kinesthetic and tactual learners, moving and touching everything as they learn.
- Many adults, especially males, maintain kinesthetic and tactual strengths throughout their lives." (Rita Stafford and Kenneth J. Dunn; Allyn and Bacon, 1993).
- Kinesthetic learners are most successful when totally engaged with the learning activity.
- They acquire information fastest when participating in a science lab, drama presentation, skit, field trip, dance, or other active activity.
- Because of the high numbers of kinesthetic learners, education is shifting toward a more hands-on approach; manipulatives and other "props" are incorporated into almost every school subject, from physical education to language arts.
- Hands-on teaching techniques are gaining recognition because they address the challenging needs of kinesthetic learners, as well as the diverse needs of auditory and visual learners.
- Visual-By second or third grade, some students have become visual learners.
- Auditory-During the late elementary years some students, primarily females, become auditory learners.
Teaching Secondary Students Through Their Individual Learning Styles 11. Project-Based Learning: PBL
- Allows for a variety of learning styles
- "Real" world oriented - learning has value beyond the demonstrated competence of the learner
- Risk-free environment - provides positive feedback and allow choice
- Encourages the use of higher order thinking skills and learning concepts as well as basic facts
- Utilizes hands-on approaches
Kraft -http://www.rmcdenver.com/useguide/pbl.htm 12. Project-Based Learning: PBL
- Provides for in-depth understanding
- Accessible for all learners
- Utilizes various modes of communication
- Assessment is congruent with instruction - performance-based
- Students are responsible for their own learning
- Students have ownership of their learning within the curriculum
- Projects promote meaningful learning, connecting new learning to students' past performances
Kraft -http://www.rmcdenver.com/useguide/pbl.htm 13. Project-Based Learning: PBL
- Learning utilizes real time data - investigating data and drawing conclusions
- The learning process is valued as well as the learning project
- Learning cuts across curricular areas - multidisciplinary in nature
- Teacher is a facilitator of learning
- Student self-assessment of learning is encouraged
Kraft -http://www.rmcdenver.com/useguide/pbl.htm 14. Project Learning: Edutopia
- According to research: Project Learning is adynamic approach to teaching
- Explore real-world problems and challenges
- Develop cross-curriculum skills
- Work in small collaborative groups.
- Fosters active and engaged learning
- Inspires students to obtain a deeper knowledge of the subjects they're studying.
- View Video at:http://www.edutopia.org/project-based-learning-overview
15. Project Learning: Edutopia
- Develop confidence and self-direction through both team-based and independent work.
- More likely to retain the knowledge gained through this approach far more readily than through traditional textbook-centered learning.
- Read Intro at:http://www.edutopia.org/project-learning-introduction
- Read World Issues Motivate Students -http://www.edutopia.org/start-pyramid
16. Blooms Original Taxonomy withAction Verbs and Products Virginia Tech -http://www.edtech.vt.edu/edtech/id/assess/behavior.html Know Remember Comprehend Understand Use Apply Analyze Take Apart Synthesize Create New Evaluate Judge Behaviors: Action Verbs name memorize record list match write state repeat describe discuss give examples locate tell find report predict review recognize estimate translate practice illustrate sketch solve show employ sort classify distinguish experiment compare contrast diagram debate solve examine inventory design plan propose arrange assemble develop produce organize manage revise rate value appraise decide choose score select assess debate recommend Products: Outcomes Assignments Assessments Presentations Experiments Performances facts events models filmstrips books puzzles stories games journals illustrations drawings maps sculptures diorama scrapbook mobile collections diagrams graphs surveys questionnaires reports objects news articles poems machines songs plays hypotheses polls panels recommendations discussions simulations evaluations surveys 17. Understanding by Design: Theory of Backwards Design
- Desired Results :What will the student learn?
- Acceptable Evidence :How will you design an assessment that accurately determines if the studen learned what he/she was supposed to learn?
- Lesson Planning :How do you design a lesson that results in student learning?
Identify desired results Determine acceptable evidence Plan learning experiences and instruction 18. Theory of Backwards Design
- Understanding by Design:Wiggins & McTighe
- Illuminating paradox/problem