A Model for Designing Constructivist Learning Environments
A. AssumptionsKnowledge is individually constructed and socially co-constructed by learners based on their interactions in the world.the meaning that learners construct depends on their needs, beliefs, and prior knowledge
B. Learning Goals interpret and solve the problems complete the projects answer the questions resolve the issues
C. Essential ComponentsQuestion/Case/Problem/ProjectRelated CasesInformation ResourcesCognitive ToolsConversation and Collaboration ToolsSocial-contextual Support
C.a The ProblemThe problem drives the learning. * problem context * problem representation * problem manipulation space
C.b Related Casesassist learners in understanding the issues implicit in the problem representation # scaffolding memory # representing complexity
C.c Information Resourcessupport learners to construct the mental models and formulate hypotheses ~ text documents ~ graphics ~ video
C.d Cognitive Toolsintellectual devices to visualize, organize, automate or supplant information processing < modeling tools < dynamic tools < generic tools
C.e Conversation and Collaboration Toolsaccess to shared information and shared knowledge building tools to help learners to collaboratively construct socially shared knowledge + Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environment + Communities of Learners
C.f Social-contextual Supporttrain teachers and students to accommodate contextual factors ^ CoVis Project
D. Instructional Supports Coaching Modeling Scaffolding
D.1 Modelingprovide learners with an example of the desired performanceHow Do I Do This? ~ Behavioral Modeling ~ Cognitive Modeling
D.2 Coachingmotivate learners, analyze their performance, provide feedback, provoke reflection and articulation of what was learnedHow Am I Doing?
D.3 Scaffoldingprovide temporary frameworks to support learning and student performance beyond their capacitiesHelp Me Do This?
E. DiscussionsPhilosophical AssumptionsImpediments to LearningEvaluations