Consolidating the RevolutionGeorge Bush1988 - 1993
1988 Campaign54% of the voteBush: called for a kinder, gentler America and pledged Read my lips: no new taxesContinued to play on racismStressed Reagans achievementsBetter soviet relationsLow inflation14 million new jobsJesse Jackson: war on poverty and drugsMichael Dukakis: stressed managerial skillsthis election is not about ideology, its about competence
Collision of values1988 presidential nomination. (R) Pat Robertson tapped discontent of changes that had taken place since the 60s. He used the mailing list from his 700 Club program to mobilize conservative ChristiansPush the Republican party further to the rights on family and social issuesSocial ills due to over indulgence
(D) Jesse Jackson, a civil rights leader and minister from Chicago grass roots campaign to move the Democratic party to the left.rainbow coalition (labor unionists, feminists, and others)Social ills due to racism and economic inequality
Pro-Bush AdvertisementsThemesFear of crimeFear or concern with racial tensionFear of perceived erosion of social valuesRhetorical war on crime and drugs was his major domestic policy
War on DrugsFederal drug control budget tripled1980s of federal inmates were drug offendersLonger sentencesMandatory jail timeTougher parole terms for drug crimes pushed the proportion over 50% by 1990
Debtor NationPrevious to Reagan foreigners owed the US and its citizens about 2500.00/familyBy Bush each family owed about 7000.00After pledging not to raise taxesBush raised taxes in 1990
Foreign policySouth Africa1986 over a Reagan Veto congress imposed economic sanctions against white governmentincluding a ban on corporate investmentMovement led by Anglican Bishop Desmond TutuPressure to release ANC leader Nelson Mandela Negotiations, elections1992 first president, MandelaBerlin1991Dismantling of the Soviet UnionMany soviets states broke away and established Republics1991 Bush & Gorbachev signed a treaty in Moscow to reduce strategic nuclear arsenals by 25% over 5 yearsGorbachev Resigned and replaced with Boris Yeltsin
Foreign policyNicaraguaBush abandoned U.S. funded contra war against the socialist democratic Sandanista government Continued to interfere politically and economicallyPanama1989 Bush ordered invasion to capture General Manuel Noriega, formerly on the CIA payrollFall guy for war on drugs
Persian Gulf War August 2, 1990 President Saddam Hussein of Iraq seized the oil rich country of IraqQuick Conquest gave Iraq 20% of the worlds oil production and reservesAnti-Iraq coalitionBush demanded unconditional withdrawEnlisted European & Arab alliesConvinced Saudi Arabia to accept substantial U.S. Forces
Justifications of InvasionDesire to punish armed aggression Presumed need to protect Iraqs other neighborsNo evidence of Iraqi preparations against Saudi Arabia. The build up of American air power plus effective economic sanctions would have accomplished both protection and punishment. Sanctions and diplomatic pressure might also have brought withdrawal from most or all of Kuwait.
Additional American objectivesDestroy Iraqs capacity to create nuclear weapons to topple Saddams regime
Resolution 678Troops in Saudi Arabia increased to 580,000Security Council Resolution 678all necessary means to liberate KuwaitUnited Nations UmbrellaIgnored compromise and concessions
Operation Desert StormJanuary 16, 1991Massive air attacksBombed transportation facilities, utilities, food supplies40 day bombing, prelude to ground assaultAfter 100 hours a ceasefire was called 148 dead (35 friendly fire) 467 wounded U.S.15,000 dead and 65,000 wounded Iraqis
Persian Gulf WarProved Americans were again ready to use military might to pursue national interestsBy God, weve kicked the Vietnam Syndrome once and for AllH.W. Bush
1990s impact of Reagan era tax cuts and deregulationCollapse of the Savings and Loan industryProvider of home loans and secure return to investorsDue to policies 1988-1990 600 S&Ls failedWiped out savings for depositorsGovernment bailouts $400 billionThe bailout, the war & the medicare/medicaid payments increased national deficit Recession increased jobless rate to above 7% and Americans living in poverty increased to 34 million from 2.1 million
Domestic PolicyRodney King RiotApril 1992, Los Angeles, CaliforniaReminder of the nations inattention to the problems of racism and povertyConfirmation of biased behavior of police towards minoritiesTelevised trial of not guilty verdict for those officers who savagely beat king4 days of riotingAfrican Americans, Central and South Americans, Mexicans (1/3 of 12,000 arrests)Attacked Korean and Vietnamese owned shops as symbols of economic discrimination
Growth in the SunbeltRise in military and defense spending Growth in the sun belt Southern and western regions of the united states: anchored in Florida, Texas and California.
Outsourcing to the South and foreign countries
Defense SpendingMilitary bases and defense contractors remolded the economic landscape south and western regions attracted 75% of military payrolls
Large universities (MIT, UM, Cali Institute for Tech, Stanfordleading defense contractors1/3 of all engineers worked in defense.
Immigration & Nationality Act 1965Transformed the ethnic mix of the U.S. and helped to stimulate the Sunbelt boomabolished the National Quota System1924-1965 Western EuropeansNegative: added to number of non union workersPositive: abundance of opportunities for talent and ambition for expanding economy
Cross-Border Economy1960a Mexican Government encouraged a platform economy allowing companies on the Mexican side of the border to import components and inputs duty-free 80% of the items were re-exported and 90% of the workers were Mexican.
Encouraged American companies to locate assembly plants south of the borderMaquila industries lower wage workersavoid strict antipollution laws (leading to serious threats to public health on both sides)
1800 plants employed million workers
Womens Rights & Public Policy1960s gainsTitle IX of the Educational Amendments (1972) & the Civil Rights Act Prohibited discrimination by sex in any educational program receiving federal aidExpanded athletic opportunities for women Slowly equalized the balance of women and men in faculty positions
Equal Rights Amendment1972 Congress sent the ERA to the states for ratificationEqual rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex20 states ratified the ERA within the first few monthsConservatives rallied strong oppositionTime limit for ratification expired in 1982 three states short
Abortion RightsJanuary 1973 The U.S. Supreme Court expanded the debate about womens rights with the case of Roe v. WadeStruck down state laws forbidding abortion and set guidelines for abortion during remaining months14th amendment includes a right to privacy that blocks states from interfering with a womans right to terminate a pregnancy
Opposition to Womens RightsFueled by rhetoric Male fears of increased job competition during a time with fewer employment opportunitiesMale fears about traditional family rolesFemale demands that women are equal individualsFemale conservative belief that women had a special role as anchors of families
Women in the Work forceEroding wages and ability to live on one income increased womens need to participate in the paid labor force2000 61% married women looking for work 69% single women looking for workJobs continued to be segregated by sex through 2000Women continued to be hired in female jobsSome changes due to pressure of womens movement increased number of women in traditionally male jobs
Supreme Court NominationsClarence ThomasAnita Hill Trial for sexual harassment by ThomasAppointments blunted liberalism of previous decadesNarrowed rights of arrested personsBarred physicians in federally funded clinics from discussing abortion with patients Planned Parenthood v Caseycourt affirmed Roe v Wade but upheld a Penn. law restricting abortion rights
Environmental policies1989 Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 10 million gallons of oilFouled coastal habitats, killed 1000s of animals, Jeopordized the herring and salmon industries
Air pollution in more than 100 cities exceeded federal standards1991 the Environmental Protection Agency study found that pollutants were seriously depleting the atmospheres ozone layer
Scuttled treaties on global warmingBacked oil exploration in Alaskan wilderness preservesProposed to open protected wetlands to developers
Ideological Shift/Conservative Backlash1950-60s Americans argued over foreign policyracial justice economySince the 1980s they have quarreled overbeliefs and valuespatterns of family lifeReligious belief has heavily influenced politics as groups and individuals try to shape America around their own ideas of a godly society
Ronald reagans vice president, George Bush, elected in 1988. he was a son of a connecticut senaotr, yale graduate, and world war II vet and entered the texas oil busineess. He served in congress, lost a senate race, been a U.S. Ambassador and CIA director before runnning in 1980 with Reagan.
He chose Dan Quayle as his running mate and ran against Jesse Jackson and mass. Gov Micheal Dukakis.
Jackson urged concern for the poor and war on drugs , he lost the primaries to Dukakis Two religious leaders sought the 1988 presidential nomination. Pat Robertson