Conduit hydropower opportunities in South Africa (High and ... ‚ Notes: * Initial planning, ... Generated electric power: P = ... ECOWATT Micro hydroelectric power plant type

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    Conduit hydropower opportunities in

    South Africa (High and low head)

    Marco van Dijk, Lecturer, University of

    Pretoria, South Africa

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    Do you know how an electrician tells if he's

    working with AC or DC power?

    If it's AC, his teeth chatter when he grabs the

    conductors. If it's DC, they just clamp together.

    What's the difference between a woman and a

    battery?

    A battery has a positive side.

    Conduit hydropower opportunities in South

    Africa (High and low head)

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    Our involvement

    Title: Energy generation from distribution

    systems

    Period: 2 years

    Funding: Water Research Commission with a

    number of collaborating organisations

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    What is conduit hydropower?

    Description

    South-African context

    Identifying potential sites

    Potential sites in Tshwane

    PvRCHP

    Bloemwater hydropower

    Design process

    Way forward

    Layout of the presentation

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    Conduit hydropower is where excess

    energy available in pressurised conduits

    (pumping or gravity) is transformed into

    clean, renewable hydroelectric energy by

    means of a turbine.

    The excess energy is normally dissipated

    by means of pressure control valves but by

    conveying it through a parallel dissipating

    system, the water turbine, the pressure

    head and flow is utilized to generate

    hydroelectric power.

    What is conduit hydropower?

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    What is conduit hydropower? Uitkijk reservoir

    Brandkop reservoir

    1 400

    1 420

    1 440

    1 460

    1 480

    1 500

    1 520

    1 540

    1 560

    1 580

    0 10 000 20 000 30 000 40 000 50 000 60 000

    Chainage (m)

    Ele

    va

    tio

    n (

    m)

    Longitudinal profile

    HGL static conditions

    HGL maximum flow

    Hmax = 83.2 m, Qmin = 0 m/s

    Qmax = 1.42 m/s, Hmin = 15 m

    H

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    What is conduit hydropower? Uitkijk reservoir

    Brandkop reservoir

    1 400

    1 420

    1 440

    1 460

    1 480

    1 500

    1 520

    1 540

    1 560

    1 580

    0 10 000 20 000 30 000 40 000 50 000 60 000

    Chainage (m)

    Ele

    va

    tio

    n (

    m)

    Longitudinal profile

    HGL static conditions

    HGL maximum flow

    When flowing at 70% of design capacity

    H70% = 47.1 m, Q70% = 1.0 m/s

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    Description

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    Drivers to consider conduit hydropower:

    Renewable energy source

    Rising energy costs

    Utilizing existing water infrastructure

    Financial incentives

    Public perception

    Job creation

    Extending the operational life of control valves

    Remote power (alarms, communications etc.)

    Description

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    South African context

    Who is looking into conduit hydropower:

    Rand Water Board (4 sites total 15 MW)

    Bloem Water (2 x 350 kW)

    Umgeni Water

    Lepelle Northern Water (3 sites total 370 kW)

    City of Tshwane (5 sites total 1.6 MW)

    Ethekwini Municipality (various)

    George Municipality (various)

    Amatola Water

    ESKOM (5-7MW)

    City of Cape Town

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    South African context

    City of Cape Town

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    High head and low head

    Q, H, generation time and assurance of

    supply (probability distributions)

    Accessibility

    Reservoir storage to accommodate

    fluctuating demands

    Generated electricity consumption?

    Bypass alternative

    Safety mechanisms

    Feasibility

    Identifying potential sites

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    Potential sites in Tshwane

    Geographically speaking the City

    of Tshwane has a lower elevation

    then the bulk service Reservoirs

    of Rand Water which is the main

    water supply.

    Water is then distributed through a

    large water system that includes

    160 reservoirs, 42 water towers,

    10677 km of pipes and more than

    260 pressure reducing

    installations (PRVs) that operates

    at pressures of up to 250 m.

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    Potential sites in Tshwane

    Reservoir site

    Estimated

    average

    capacity (kW)

    Estimated annual

    generation

    potential (kwh/a)

    Estimated

    development

    cost (R) *

    Estimated

    revenue (year

    1) (R)##

    Garsfontein 550 3 854 400 R 12 100 000 R1 504 000

    Wonderboom# 330 2 312 640 R 7 260 000 R902 000

    Heights# 380 2 663 040 R 8 360 000 R1 040 000

    Akasia# 260 1 822 080 R 5 720 000 R711 000

    Waverley# 80 56 0640 R 1 760 000 R220 000

    Total 1 600 11 212 800 R 35 200 000 R2 873 000

    Notes: * Initial planning, design and capital costs

    # Based on IMQS data (no historical data available)

    ## Utilizing a conservative load factor of 0.8, turbine system efficiency of 70%, averaged

    Megaflex tariff of 50 c/kwh and subtracting anticipated O&M costs

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

    Supply

    line

    Isolating

    valve

    Cross flow turbine

    ballast tank

    Control

    panel

    pinch valve

    Guide vane control

    15kW

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

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    Pierre van Ryneveld Conduit Hydropower Plant

    Launch

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    Bloemwater hydropower

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    Uitkijk reservoir

    Brandkop reservoir

    De Hoek reservoir

    1 400

    1 450

    1 500

    1 550

    1 600

    1 650

    0 20 000 40 000 60 000 80 000 100 000

    Chainage (m)

    Ele

    va

    tio

    n (

    m)

    Uitkijk - Brandkop profile

    De Hoek - Uitkijk profile

    HGL maximum flow

    Bloemwater hydropower

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    Bloemwater hydropower (Uitkijk)

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    Bloemwater hydropower (Brandkop)

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    Generating potential (Uitkijk to Brandkop)

    Uitkijk reservoir

    Brandkop reservoir

    1 400

    1 420

    1 440

    1 460

    1 480

    1 500

    1 520

    1 540

    1 560

    1 580

    0 10 000 20 000 30 000 40 000 50 000 60 000

    Chainage (m)

    Ele

    va

    tio

    n (

    m)

    Longitudinal profile

    HGL static conditions

    HGL maximum flow

    Hmax = 83,2 m

    Qmax = 1,42 m/s

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    Q40 = 0,57 m3/s: H = 66,3 m

    Q70 = 1,00 m3/s: H = 47,1 m

    Q100 = 1,42 m3/s: H = 17,5 m

    Generating potential (Uitkijk to Brandkop)

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    Option 1: Construct hydropower plants

    which will maximize income on this supply

    line (300 400 kW / site)

    Option 2: Construct a smaller pilot plant that

    would supply sufficient energy to provide the

    Bloemwater Head Office or site with

    electricity ( 95 kW required)

    Options to consider

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    Site location Brandkop Reservoir

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    IREM Crossflow turbine and generator

    Nominal voltage: three/single phase 400/230V 50Hz

    Generated electric power: P = 96 kW

    Net head axis turbine: H = 40 m

    Flow :Q = 350 l/s

    ECOWATT Micro hydroelectric power plant type TBS Cross Flow turbine in stainless steel type 4-0.5

    Synchronous generator type AZ 100

    Revolution multiplier by cogged driving belt