Computers Merit Badge

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  • 1. Computers Merit Badge Christopher Strauss Frontier Trails District Troop 132

2. Computers Merit Badge Webs

  • Course web for this class
    • Computers Merit BadgeCourse Web
      • Computers Merit BadgeRequirements
      • Computers Merit BadgeProof of Completion
      • Instructor'sCourse Outline
      • Computers Merit BadgeTake-home Worksheet
  • Resource Webs (listed on the Course Web)
  • Many other web resources are available just search on computers or some other term in your favorite web search engine

3. History of Computers - Abacus

  • The first true calculating machine (before 400 BC) was theabacus

4. Napiers Bones (circa 1617)

  • The Scottish inventor of logarithms went on to construct calculating rods (made from bone) that perform multiplication and division by simply adding and subtracting
  • Led to slide rules (1621 Fr. Oughtred)

5. Charles Babbages Difference Machine and Analytical Engine

  • 1822 and 1833 designs
  • Prototype for modern computers
  • Four parts: Input device, memory (store), processor (mill), and an output device
  • Thedifference machinewas actually built recently at MIT.. and worked!!

6. Herman HollerithsPunch Cards

  • Developed to win a contest by the Census Bureau to improve census data processing after the 1880 census had taken seven years to tabulate.
    • They were used successfully in the 1890 U. S. Census
  • Theconceptwas not THAT new in France in 1801, Joseph-Marie Jacquard invented anautomatic loomusing punched cards for the control of the patterns in the fabrics.
  • Herman Hollerithlater formed the company that became IBM (International Business Machines Corporation).

7. Colossus Mark I (England), Harvard Mark I, ENIAC, EDVAC

  • World War II: computers were developed to break German and Japanese message codes and create firing tables
  • Technologies: central processors were made up ofvacuum tubes
  • Beginning with theHarvard Mark I , they could be re-programmed by re-wiring with plugs like a switchboard, or withpaper punch tape

8. De-bugging computers is born

  • 9 September 1945 EnsignGrace Murray Hopper(RADM, USN) removed the first bug from a electromagnetic relay in the Harvard Mark II where it had been smashed, halting the computer.She taped the moth to a page the log book.

9. TechnologicalBreakthroughs

  • 1947 - William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain invent the " transfer resistance " device, later to be known as the transistor , to replace vacuum tubes
  • 1951 Magnetic-core memory also replaces tubes, making real-time memory use practical

10. Remington Rand UNIVAC 1951 - Delivered to the Census Bureau

  • First mass-produced computer (46 made)
  • The size of a one-car garage (14 x 8 x 8.5)
  • 5,200 vacuum tubes required a chilled water air conditioning system
  • Government, GE, insurance companies, DuPont (scientific)
  • 1956 Concordance of the Bible (6 mos. vs. 30 yrs)

11. Integrated Circuit

  • 1958 Jack Kilby created the first integrated circuit at Texas Instruments to prove that resistors and capacitors could exist on the same piece of semiconductor material. His circuit consisted of a sliver of poisonous germanium with five components linked by wires.Germanium was soon replaced by silicon (1961).

12. Microprocessors

  • 1971 - Federico Faggin, Ted Hoff, and others at Intel designed the 4004microprocessorwhile building a custom chip for Busicom, a Japanese calculator maker. The 4004 had 2,250 transistors, handling data in four-bit chunks, and could perform 60,000 operations per second.

13. Electronic Hobby Computers evolve into Personal Computers!!

  • 1975 - Electronics hobbyists buy the earliest personal computer
    • MITS Altair 8800 (Intel 8080)
  • 1976 - Consumer computers arrive after several companies begin large scale manufacturing
    • 1976 - Apple Computer Apple II
    • 1977 - Radio Shack TRS-80
    • Commodore PET
    • Heath H8, H9
    • 1981 IBM PC

14. Types of Computers

  • Categories
    • Special purpose(digital watch, emission control computer, home security system)
    • General purpose(Mainframes, Minis, PCs)
  • Sizes
    • Supercomputers(beginning with the CRAY I in 1976!! - massively parallel processing)
    • Mainframes(multi-user IBM, DEC, NCR, etc.)
    • Minicomputers(multi-user DEC, Sun, file servers)
    • Microcomputers(single-user personal computers)
    • NEW wearable computers now in development

15. Uses for Computers

  • For supercomputers
    • Weather forecasting, satellite tracking, research
  • For mainframe computers
    • Banking, library automation, flight scheduling, census
  • For minicomputers
    • Operate manufacturing plants, track orders and inventory, multi-user applications, web, email, and database services
  • For microcomputers
    • Spreadsheets, word processing, graphics, games, communications

16. Parts of a Computer

  • Central Processing Unit(CPU) is the brain,and is some brand of microprocessor chip
    • Intel 4004 2,250 transistors; 8088 40,000; 80486 1 million; Pentium 7 million; Pentium II 30 million
  • The CPU is normally mounted in a plug-in socket on themotherboard , a circuit board tying everything in the computer together via an electronic bus
  • Co-processorsare used to offload computing tasks from the CPU, such as mathematics and graphics
  • Random Access Memory(RAM) andRead-Only Memory(ROM) are also mounted here
    • ROM is permanent, often re-writable (CMOS)
    • RAM is transient unless permanently powered (Palm)
  • SeePC Tech Guidefor more details

17. Schematic Diagrams

  • What's in that Box web
  • Click-n-learn Guide to PC
  • PC Tech Guide
  • Dave's Guide

18. Input Devices (digitizers)

  • Keyboard (QUERTY, Dvorak, custom an alphanumeric symbol digitizer)
  • Mouse and other Pointing devices
    • Trackball, joystick, pressure-sensitive tablet, touch screen a location digitizer
  • Sound digitizer (microphone, MIDI device)
  • Scanner (an image digitizer)
  • Sensor (temperature, light, moisture, smoke, movement, or other environmental digitizer)

19. Magnetic Storage

  • Sequential Access
    • Magnetic Tape
      • Reel-to-reel or cassette
      • Original microcomputer media,now used for backups
  • Random Access
    • Floppy Disk (8, 5 , 3.25, etc.)
      • Magnetic powder coating on flexible disk in sleeve
      • Drive contains an actuator and read-write head on arm
    • Hard Disk
      • Magnetically coated metallic platters on high-speed spindle
      • Drive actuator with many floating read-write heads on arms
    • For more information see How Hard Drives Workand PC Tech Guide(where thisdiagram came from ----- >)

20. Optical Storage

  • CD-ROM (Compact-Disc Read-Only Memory)
    • Write laser burns pits into the surface of the disk
    • Read laser bounces light off the pitted surface
    • WORM Write Once Read Many, or CD-R
    • Newest formats: CD-RW, DVD, DVD-RW
  • Capacity (newer media have higher capacities)
    • Compare the CD-ROM surface (left) to the DVD surface (right)
    • For more information seeHow CDs WorkandPC Tech Guide

Motion picture 4.5 gigabytes DVD-5 270,000 pages 540 megabytes CD-ROM 40,000 pages 80 megabytes Hard Drive 720 typed pages 1.4 megabytes High-density disk Equivalent Size Typical Capacity Medium 21. Output Devices

  • Printers (the first output device) and Plotters
    • Impact (daisywheel)