Computer Networks & Topologies Group Members Shahid Ahmed Sp11-Bba-100 Shahzad Zeb Sp11-Bba-084 Nadia Naseer Abbasi Sp11-Bba-079 Ahsan Bashir Sp11-Bba-007

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Computer Networks & Topologies

Computer Networks & TopologiesGroup MembersShahid Ahmed Sp11-Bba-100Shahzad Zeb Sp11-Bba-084Nadia Naseer Abbasi Sp11-Bba-079Ahsan Bashir Sp11-Bba-007Nosherwan Zafar Sp11-Bba-080Muhammad Fahad Sp11-Bba-082Computer NetworkA way of connecting computers together so that they can communicate, share information and other resources with each other is called computer network.A computer network is also called the information network.

Types of Computer NetworksLAN

WAN

MANLAN

LANLAN stands for Local Area NetworkIt is used to cover a small areaThe network of computers in a computer lab of a college and network of computers in an office building are examples of LANIn a LAN, the nodes are connected via cablesA LAN may use star topology, ring topology or bus topologyA LAN covers small distance such as one office or building

WAN

WANWAN stands for wide area networkIt is used to cover a large or vide areaThe computers connected to WAN can be in different cities or countriesNodes are connected through telephone lines however they can be connected through microwave or satellite systemsTypically a WAN consists of two or more LANs connected together The internet is worlds largest WAN

MAN

MANMAN stands for metropolitan area networkIt covers area of a single cityUsually MAN connects more than one LANs in a city or townIt covers smaller geographical area than WANFibre optic cables are used as communication mediaSo it is very high-speed networkMobile phones (cellular) system often use MANNetwork TopologyThere are many ways in which computers can be connected together in computer network.The way in which computers or other devices are connected in network is called network topology.Types of network TopologyBus topology

Star topology

Ring topology

Tree topology

Mesh topologyBus topology

Bus topologyAll nodes or devices are connected to a common communication medium or central single cable that is backbone cableThis cable is called Bus It is very simple network and less expensiveBut it supports only a small number of nodesIt does not need much cabling to connect nodes as compared to other networks

Star topology

Star topologyEach node is directly connected to a central connection point known as Hubnodes are connected to the Hub with unshielded twisted pair EthernetStar topology is most commonly used in LANMany home networks uses the Star topologyThis network forms a shape like star It is easy to install and to maintainIt requires more cabling than Bus topology

Ring topology

Ring topologyIn a ring topology, each node is connected to two adjacent nodes or neighboursIt forms a closed ring or loopIn this way the last node connects to the first node to complete the ringAll the messages travel through a ring in one direction (clockwise or anti-clockwise)Token passing method is used in this topologyIt is less expensive than star topologyTree topology

Tree topologyNodes are connected to each other in such a way that it forms a tree like structure Multiple star topologies are used to form a tree networkIt has combined features of bus and star topologyOne central hub and multiple secondary hubs are used The cable TV network is an example of tree networkMain cable is divided into branches and each branch is further divided in to smallest branches and so onMesh topology

Mesh topologyEach node is directly connected to every other node on the networkThis type of network involves concept of routesSome WANs like internet uses Mesh topologyEach node can send message to its destination through multiple pathsIts performance is not affected with heavy load of data transmissionIt is difficult to install and is much expensive