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Computer Clothing Seminar Report ’03 INTRODUCTION Wearable computer comprises of a computer built within an ordinary clothing. This transformation allows it to be worn constantly, with the goal of becoming a seamless extension of body and mind. Equipped with various sensors which measure heart rate, respiration, footstep rate etc, the apparatus can function as a personal safety device for reducing crime, as well as personal health monitor for improving health care by encouraging individuals to take an active role in diagnosis and body maintenance. The ‘wearable computer’ apparatus is embedded within nontransparent clothing which provides shielding. Electronic circuits are built entirely out of textiles to distribute data Dept. of EEE MESCE Kuttippuram -1-

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Computer Clothing Seminar Report ’03


Wearable computer comprises of a computer built within an

ordinary clothing. This transformation allows it to be worn constantly,

with the goal of becoming a seamless extension of body and mind.

Equipped with various sensors which measure heart rate, respiration,

footstep rate etc, the apparatus can function as a personal safety device

for reducing crime, as well as personal health monitor for improving

health care by encouraging individuals to take an active role in diagnosis

and body maintenance. The ‘wearable computer’ apparatus is embedded

within nontransparent clothing which provides shielding. Electronic

circuits are built entirely out of textiles to distribute data and power and

perform touch sensing. These circuits are passive components sewn from

conductive yarns as well as conventional components to create

interactive electronic devices, such as musical keyboards and graphic

input surfaces.

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There are three operational modes in this new interaction

between human and computer.

Constancy : The computer runs continuously, and is “ always ready to

interact with the user. Unlike hand-held device, laptop computer, or

PDA, it does not need to be opened up and turned on prior to use. The

signal flow from human to computer, and computer to human, runs

continuously to provide a constant user interface.

Augmentation: Traditional computing paradigms are based on the notion

that computing is the primary task. Wearable computing, however, is

based on the notion that computing is NOT the primary task. The

assumption of wearable computing is that the user will be doing

something else at the same time as doing the computing. Thus the

computer should serve to augment the intellect, or augment the senses.

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Mediation: Unlike hand held devices, laptop computers, and PDAs, the

wearable computer can encapsulate us. It doesn’t necessarily need to

completely enclose us, but the concept allows for a greater degree of

encapsulation than traditional portable computers. There are two aspects to

this encapsulation:

Solitude: It can function as an information filter, and allow us to block

out material we might not wish to experience, whether it be offensive

advertising, or simply a desire to replace existing media with different

media. In less severe manifestations, it may simply allow us to alter our

perception of reality in a very mild sort of way.

Privacy: Mediation allows us to block or modify information leaving

the encapsulated space. In the same way that ordinary clothing prevents

others from seeing our naked bodies, the wearable computer may , for

example, serve as an intermediary for interacting with untrusted systems,

such as third party digital anonymous cash “cyber wallets” .


There are six informational flow paths associated with this new

human-machine synergy. The signal flow paths are, in fact, attributes of

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wearable computing, and are described , that follows, from the human’s

point of view:

UNMONOPOLIZING of the user’s attention: it does not cut you off

from the outside world like a virtual reality game or the like. You can

attend to other matters while using the apparatus. It is built with the

assumption that computing will be secondary activity, rather than a

primary focus of attention. In fact, ideally, it will provide enhanced sensory

capabilities. It may , however , mediate (augment , alter, or deliberately

diminish) the sensory capabilities.

UNRESTRICTIVE to the user: ambulatory, mobile, roving, “you can do

other things while using it”,e.g. You can type while jogging, etc

OBSERVABLE by the user: It can get your attention continuously if

you want it to. Almost always observable: within reasonable limitations (e.g.

that you might not see the screen while you blink or look away

momentarily ) the output medium is constantly perceptible by the wearer.

CONTROLLABLE by the user: Responsive. You can grab control of

it at any time you wish. Even in automated processes you can

manually override to break open the control loop and become part of the

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loop at any time you want to (example: “a big Halt button you want as

an application mindlessly opens all 50 documents that were highlighted

when you accidentally pressed “Enter” would make a computer more

CONTROLLABLE. Infinitely-often-controllable: the constancy of user-

interface results from almost-always observability and infinitely-often

controllability in the sense that there is always a potential for manual

override which need not be always exercised.

ATTENTIVE to the environment: Environmentally aware, multimodal,

multisensory.(As a result this ultimately gives the user increased

situational awareness).

COMMUNICATIVE to others: Can be used as a communications

medium when you want it to. Expressive: allows the wearable to be

expressive through the medium, whether as a direct communications

medium to others, or as means of assisting the production of expressive

media (artistic or otherwise).

Followed by the above six properties is that it must also be:

CONSTANT: Always ready. May have “sleep modes” but never “dead”.

Unlike a laptop computer which must be opened up, switched on, and

booted up before use, it is always on and always running.

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PERSONAL: Human and computer are inextricably intertwined.

PROSTHETIC: You can adapt to it so that it acts as a true extension

of mind and body; after time you forget that you are wearing it.

ASSERTIVE: can have barrier to prohibition or to requests by others

for removal during times when you wish such a barrier. This is contrast

to laptop computer in briefcase or bag that could be separated from you

by a “please give all bags and briefcases at the counter” policy of a

department store, library, or similar establishment.

PRIVATE: others can’t observe or control it unless you let them.

Others can’t determine system status unless you want them to, e.g. clerk

at refund counter in department store where photography is prohibited

can’t tell whether or not you are transmitting wireless video to a spouse

for remote advice, in contrast to camcorder technology where it is

obvious you are taking a picture when you hold it up to your eye.

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Existential technology means the computer is controlled by the

wearer. This control need not require continuous thought, but the locus

of control must be such that it is entirely within the wearer’s domain.

The user must also potentially know the functionality of the apparatus.

Furthermore, the apparatus provides the wearer with the ability to make

its operation secure and completely private when desired. In addition to

the obvious privacy afforded and eudaemonic nature, the output can be

made private when desired by.

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As with all clothes computerized apparel starts with the proper

thread. Cotton, polyester or rayon don’t have the needed properties to

carry the electrical current needed for digital clothing. However, metallic

yarns are not new to the clothing industry. We have seen these metallic

fabrics worn to make fashion statements for years. Researchers at MIT’s

Media Lab are using silk organza, a unique fabric that has been used to

make clothes in India at least a century.

Silk organza is ideal for computerized clothing because it is

made with two fibers that make it conductive to electricity. The first

fiber is an ordinary silk thread , running in the opposite direction of the

fiber is silk thread that is wrapped in a thin copper foil. It’s this copper

foil that gives the silk organza the ability to conduct electricity. Copper

is a very good conductor of electricity and some microprocessor

manufactures are beginning to use copper to speed up microprocessors.

The metallic yarn is prepared just like cloth core telephone wire,

according to the MIT researchers. If you cut open a coiled telephone

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cable, there’s usually a conductor that is made out of a sheet of copper

wrapped round a core of nylon or polyester threads. These metallic yarn

can withstand high temperatures, the yarn can be sewn or embroidered

using industrial machinery. This property makes it very promising for

mass producing computerized clothing.

Silk Organza

A strip of the fabric would basically function like a ribbon of

cable. Ribbon cables are used in computers to connect disk drives to

controllers. One problem with using silk organza would result if the

circuits were to touch each other, therefore MIT scientists use an

insulating material to coat or support the fabric.

Once the fabric is cut into suitable shape, other components

need to be attached to the fabric, like resistors, capacitors and coils.

These components are directly sewn to the fabric. Additional components

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such as LED’s, crystals, piezo transducers, other surface mount

components, if needed, are soldered directly onto the metallic yarn

which the developers say is an easy process. Other electronic devices

can be snapped into the fabric by using some kind of gripper snaps,

which pierce the yarn to create an electrical contact. These devices can

then easily removed in order to clean the fabric.

At Georgia Tech, researchers have developed another kind of

thread to make smart clothes. Their smart shirt, which we will look at

the next section, is made of plastic optical fibers and other specialty

fibers woven into the fabric. These optical and electrical conductive

fibers will allow the shirt to wirelessly communicate with the other

devices, transferring data from the sensors embedded in the shirt.


How do you operate a wear comp ? What sort of software do

you use in it ? What do you use it as input and output devices ?

Where do you store data ? How do you store them? All these are

common questions that would arise in someone new to wear comp.

Below given are brief answers to such common questions.

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The commonly used operating system on a wearable computer

is WOS(wear comp OS). Red hat and GNU Linux can be run in close

coordination as an operating system too. Various software mostly GNU

freeware such as GIMP (GNU image modulation program) as well as

various calender and planning programs can be run on a wearable



Prices of wearable computers tend to be in “thousands of

dollars” whether you buy old or new. An alternative approach is to

assemble a low cost system. For example, you can buy an old computer

that has NTSC output and connect to small CRT from camera. Some

such complete wearable computer systems have been built for as little


DISPLAY: A major part of the total cost of the wearable computer

system lies in its display unit. VGA display tend to increase the cost

of the system to very high extend. So in design of cheaper models,

NTSC resolution is used. This normally is too low to display VGA

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image. There are very good vedio camera viewfinders that can display

24 text, on 80 characters each. While many of the modern LCD

viewfinders are not capable to display 24 text, there are a good many

older black and white viewfinders that can display a 24 text and clear

80*24 screen, and many can be had for $10 or less.

One of the commonly used display nowadays is the personal

monitor. The personal monitor before is unique eyeglass mounted display

that creates a high resolution color image in the user’s eyesight. The

PM presents a video image equivalent to a screen from 6.5 feet

distance. The image covers only 5% of the vision and allows to see

the surrounding also. The PM is easy to use, it can be plugged into the

video and power in seconds and appear on the ultra lightweight display.


High resolution color video image

Image that appears in the person’s line of sight

Viewing angle comparable to viewing a 26” monitor from 2

meters (6.5 feet) away

Ultra light-weight, no major disturbance in the eyesight

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The personal monitor projects a high resolution color video

image that appears in the person’s line of sight in a viewing angle

comparable to viewing a 26” 0r from 2 meters away. The video image

is see around, it covers only the area in which the image appears,

otherwise users are free to view the surrounding environment. Personal

monitor provides an added convenience by maintaining the image the

wearer is looking. While the PM provides a constantly available image

in the person’s line of sight, it enables to maintain focus and attention it

keeps the integrity of the corresponding environment. The advantage will

be immediate in decreased processing time and increased precision. The

personal monitor is a monoscopic biocular display with completely

narrow field of view. The personal monitor can receive video signals

from any source. The signals are converted in the controller unit into

signals driving the electronics of the LCD display. The PM takes

standard video signals and displays them on TFT LCD display that can

be connected to any video source.

The PM consists of a monitor block, eye glasses, cable and

controller box. The monitor block contains the display, a back light and

its driver for the LCD and the lenses and mirrors that projects the

display image into the retina of the eyes. Light beams coming from the

display are reflected in two directions by the dividing mirrors placed in

front of the display.

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The monitor block has a mounting slot that fits into the

vertical nosepiece of the eyeglasses. The controller box contains the

video input modulator unit and the driving electronics of the LCD

display. The LCD directs the display, control signals are send through a

flexible shielded cabled to the display. The glasses have adjustable

temple pieces and each unit comes with a commercially available 9 volt

AC-DC adaptor.


If you are going on the cheap, a collection of pushbutton

micro switches are used as keyboards. At the higher end, you can get a

“twiddler” from Hand key, or keyboard from info grip. You can connect

micro switches that enable you to plug directly into the keyboard port if

you see a “BAT” KEYBOARD. A combination keyboard that weighs 4

ounces and fits in the palm of your hand. The twiddler 2 is an existing

technology of wearable computing.

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Many hard drives commonly used in laptop computers can

withstand operational shock, it is common to go jogging while editing,

and sometimes shoot momentary video while on horse back or riding a

mountain bike down the center of a line bumping over every railway

tie, and capturing the experience on a hard drive. It is possible to carry

enormous amount of hard drive space on your body. Prof Martin has

36GB of hard drive installed in his wear. One of his waist bag systems

contain 2GB of hard drive space and 512MB of RAM.


Low cost batteries

Early versions of wear comp used lead acid batteries. Later

versions used Li-Ion camcorder batteries. Lead acid batteries are

typically available surplus. For constant application you will want to

obtain at least two 12 Volt batteries.

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High performance batteries

Li-Ion camcorder batteries are commercially available. A

minimum of two batteries is required for constant running 12Volt



These are used in order to keep the voltage of Li-Ion batteries

constant as output voltage drops significantly, with usage from a full

charge. Another reason for constant voltage is that various components

of WearComp require different voltages. .

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Wisely designed technology can properly address the concern

for humanistic property, and therefore need not be focused on external

control just like taming with a piece of itself!. In fact, the fundamental

use of wearcomp may very well in personal empowerment of the

individual. Smart computing will allow us to explore all potential of

many modern technologies and ideas without wanting us to sacrifice

freedom or privacy. Instead of current vision of smart floors, smart light

switches, toilets, smart elevators, smart furniture and other smart

technologies that watch us correspond to our actions, what we will

witness is the emergence of smart people.

Mediated/augmented reality: - It is the ability of the computer to

offer enhanced presentations of reality to the user. The application of

the augmented reality lies in adding to your perceptual field. To aid in

repairing a broken photocopier, an overlay of the internal structure of

the photocopier can be put in the repairing person’s visual field, and

thus can help him in his work.

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MediWear :- It closely monitors the wearer’s body functions and the

moment that any one of them becomes critical, the pre-defined medical

unit is notified remotely. It is closely related to Blind Vision expect for

the fact that the transmitted signals are internal and they are relayed

on to an external source.

ENGear :- Electronics News Gathering Wearable System introduces the

sense of community and implies the existance of a group to which the

user might want to offer his/her sensory impressions.

Blind Vision :- It is a personalized radar system that is integrated in

close-fitting vest which is able to process object in the vicinity of the

wearer is a benefit for visually impaired persons. Returned waves from

the said object are transformed by the wearable computer and send over

to the vest, which sends electric stimuli to the wearer. Closer objects

exhibit “stronger pressure” via stronger current, while object further

away accordingly output milder current. Any cyclist, motorcyclist or

professional who has to work on the open environment would appreciate

this invention.

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Smart Glasses

Smart eyeglasses :- It would not appreciably obstruct the wearer’s

vision, or otherwise be encumbering, so that, for example, the wearer

could play a competitive game of volleyball wearing the apparatus. It

would not look unsightly. Ideally it would not be visible.

Smart shoes :- Inside the shoes there is an array of transducers that

picks up the impact upon the ground. The shoes supplies the personal-

worn computer with information about how the feet are impacting on

the ground, and this information could be used to control an external

process in an intimate manner.

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Smart Shoes

Smart cards and badges :- WearCam is a simple apparatus for

effortless capture , display, processing and transmission of visual

imagery. WearCam viewfinder goes beyond merely setting the camera

correctly. Since the apparatus is worn on an extended period of time,

one adapts to it, and it begin to function as a true extension of body.

In this way, the viewfinder transcends being just a composition toward

allowing the camera to “become” the eye of the wearer. A creative

application WearCam is in personal documentary. The question of

privacy is often raised with respect to WearCam. The apparatus suggests

that shopkeepers and customers alike, police and ordinary citizens alike,

etc.. must respect the possibility that they could be caught on camera.

With WearCam nobody will know whether or not a particular person

is wearing a camera, as the present (and future) units are so small that

they cannot be detected.

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Homographic modeling :- The flow field of a rigid planar patch in the

scene is tracked, and virtual objects are inserted. In this way a virtual

“Post-It” note may be left on any flat surface will be seen only by the

recipient trough WearCam.

Homographic modeling

Safety net :- A further improvement to the personal safety device

includes the use of biosensors where the quotient of heart rate divided

by foot step rate. Suppose that someone were to draw a gun and

demand cash from the wearer. The likely scenario is that the wearer’s

hear rate would increase without an increase in the foot step rate to

explain it. Such an occurrence would be programmed to trigger “may be

I’m in distress” message to other members of the personal safety


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Safety Net

Sensors, which measure heart rate (and waveform), respiration, footstep

rate (and waveform), and even carry the entire medical history.


Wearcomp allows playing music to be “disappear” into clothing and be

integrated in a more natural manner.

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The development of digital yarn opens up the opportunity for

an entire computerized clothing industry. In the next decade, we will

likely to see the wide range of apparel enter the consumer market.

Several companies are already exploring the ability of putting us in the

designer computerized clothing, including Levi, Philips, Nike and Sensa

Tex. In Europe, Levi has already tested marketing the musical jacket

developed by MIT Media Lab.

Levi’s musical jacket is made with the silk organza and is

controlled with fabric capacitive key board. This keyboard has been

mass-produced using ordinary embroidery techniques and conductive

thread. The keypad is flexible, durable, and sensitive to touch. A printed

circuit is used to give the keypad a sensing ability, so that control

reacts when pressed. The keypad can sense touch due to the increase in

capacitance of the electrode, when touched. The keypads are connected

to miniature synthesizer that plays music. Power could be supplied by a

parasitic power source as solar power, wind, temperature or mechanical

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energy from turning wrists or leg. Further out researchers are looking

for fabrics capable of generating power.

Another all-fabric keyboard being developed by the MIT Media

Lab uses conductive material sewn together in a row and column

addressable structure. The final product looks like a quilt that has been

pieced together in a square form. The quilted conductive columns are

insulated and form the conductive rows with thick fabric like felt or

velvet. Holes in the insulating fabric allow the row and column

conductors to make contact when a user presses down on the keyboard.

Shirts and other clothes using this keyboard can be thrown in the

washing machine just like an ordinary piece of clothing.

While the musical jacket is an example for how computerized

clothes are used for entertainment, researchers at the Georgia Institute of

Technology have developed a practical and medical purpose for this

technology. The smart shirt can monitor heart and breathing rates by

using optical and electric conductive fibers that are sewn into the fabric

of the shirt.

The smart shirt project at Georgia Tech was originally

financed by the navy, beginning in 1999. At that time the shirt was

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being designed for soldiers in combat, so that medical personnel could

find the exact location of a bullet wound. To pinpoint the location of

the bullet penetration, a light signal is continually be sent from one end

of the optical fiber to a receiver on the other end. This fiber is also

connected to a personal status monitor worn on the hip. If the light

from the emitter does not reach the receiver inside the monitor, this

signals that the soldier has been shot. The light signal then bounces

back to the point of penetration, which helps doctors to find the exact

location of the bullet wound.

Smart Shirt


Batteries add size, weight, and inconvenience to present-day

mobile technology. Thus wearcomp technology explores the possibility of

harnessing the energy expended during wearer’s everyday actions to

generate power for his or her computer, thus eliminating the use of

batteries. An analysis of power generation through leg motion is

generated in depth and a survey of other methods such as generation

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by breath or blood pressure, body heat, and finger and limb motion is

also presented.

Wearable computer is an effort to make computers truly part

of our day lives by embedding them into our clothing or creating form

factors that can be used like clothing. This level of access to

computation will revolutionize how computers are used. Although the

computational hardware has been reduced in size to accommodate this

vision, power systems are still bulky and inconvenient. Even today’s

PDAs ( personal digital assistants ) are often limited by battery capacity,

current and the necessity of having an electrical outlet within easy

access computing, However, if energy can be generated by the user’s

actions, these problems can be alleviated.

At this point, a review of vocabulary and units is in order.

Energy is used as the capacity to do the work. A joule is the product

of a force of one Newton acting at a distance of one meter. The

calorie, which is 4.19 joules, is also often used as a unit of energy.

However, in dietary circles, a Calorie refers to a kilocalorie or 1000

joules. Therefore an average adult diet of 2500 Calories translates to

10.5 mega joules.

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People are carrying more and more electronic products: mobile

phones, personal hi-fis etc. Smart clothing is a combination of electronics

and clothing textiles. These intelligent clothes are worn like ordinary

clothing and will help in various situations according to the designed

application. A piece of clothing works and helps actively to carry out a

mission such as drying. A piece of clothing usually dries hanging, it

requires a certain time to dry, so this means a passive drying . Active

drying can be accomplished with humidity sensor which notices

humidity growing up and puts heating on. Therefore dissipating of water is

more effective. Active characters of smart clothing can be heating,

cooling, changing of color and active drying. The intimate nature of

clothing is that it is always with us and that we select it of our own

accord, suggests a new trend or ‘smartness’ on people.

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Steve Mann. Wearable computing: A first step toward personal

imaging I EEE Computer, Feb 1997

Joseph Hoshen, Jim Sennot .Keeping tabs on criminals I EEE

SPECTRUM, Feb 1995






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There is a major movement going on in the electronics and

computer industries to develop wearable devices for what’s being called

Post-PC era. We are now at the dawn of that era and some of these

devices are already making their way to the consumer

market .Computerized clothes will be the next step in making computers

and devices portable without having to strap electronics into our body.

These digital clothes will able to perform some of the PC functions. These

devices are small in size and portable. This apparel can be used to read

our heart rate and breathing. The LED monitors could even be integrated

into this apparel to display text and images.

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I express my sincere gratitude to Dr.Nambissan, Prof. & Head,

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, MES College of

Engineering, Kuttippuram, for his cooperation and encouragement.

I would also like to thank my seminar guide Mrs. Shyma

Muhammed (Lecturer, Department of EEE), Asst. Prof. Gylson Thomas.

(Staff in-charge, Department of EEE) for their invaluable advice and

wholehearted cooperation without which this seminar would not have seen the

light of day.

Gracious gratitude to all the faculty of the department of EEE &

friends for their valuable advice and encouragement.

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