Computer Assisted Language Instruction

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A presentation for BE-503

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Philippine Normal University

Philippine Normal UniversityNational Center for Teacher Education

Taft Avenue, Manila

College of Graduate Studies and Teacher Education Research

FACULTY OF ARTS AND LANGUAGES

BE502/MLE504 (Teaching Strategies in the Bilingual/Multilingual Classroom)2nd Semester / S.Y. 2013-2014

Dr. Florencia Marquez

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________COMPUTER-ASISTED LANGUAGE LEARNINGQuestions for discussion:

1. How do computers and the Internet help you in learning another language?2. How do computers and the Internet help you as a language teacher?

Computer-Assisted Language Learning

Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) was the expression agreed upon at the 1983 TESOL convention in a meeting of all interested participants. This term is widely used to refer to the area of technology and second language teaching and learning despite the fact that revisions for the term are suggested regularly (Chapelle, 2001). Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) may be defined as the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning (Levy, 1997). CALL has come to encompass issues of materials design, technologies, pedagogical theories and modes of instruction. Materials for CALL can include those which are purpose-made for language learning and those which adapt existing computer-based materials, video and other materials (Beatty, 2003).

The Role of Computers in Language Learning and TeachingActivity 1Fill in the in order to complete gaps in order to complete the statements.

1. The computer is a __ __ __ o __ that provides language drills or skill practice.

2. The computer is a __ o __ __ for writing, presenting, and researching.

3. The computer is a __ e __ __ __ m of global communication.

Advantages and Limitations of Computers

Activity 2Determine which of the following are the benefits and limitations of computer technology in language teaching and learning.Adaptive testing

Delivering practice drills for grammar, vocabulary, listening, etc.

Differentiate language use for science from other disciplines (e.g. humanities)

Divide natural speech stream into discrete wordsMediate communication

Present information in different kinds of mediaProvide feedback to feedback to learners

Provide idiomatic and grammatical translations

Read and evaluate essays

Store and categorize large amounts of information

What computers CAN doWhat computers CANT do

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

1.

2.

3.

4.

* From Sokolik in Celce-Murcia Eds, 2006Activity 3Determine which of the following are the benefits and limitations of computer technology in language teaching and learning.What computers CAN doWhat computers CANT do

1.

2.

3.

4.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Judge unexpected output

Judge predetermined right or wrong answers

Provide individualized feedback

Provide immediate, yet fixed, feedback

Provide authentic information through multimedia and animations

Engage learner in rich negotiation of meaning

Motivate depth and quality of engagement of human interaction

Motivate task persistence

*From Meskill, 2002.

History of Computer-Assisted Language LearningComputers have been used in language instruction since the 1960s. However, the history of CALL can be divided into three stages.{ Behavioural CALL } -------------------- {Communicative CALL } -------------------- { Integrative CALL }

1960s-1970s

1980s-1980s

1990s-Present

Activity 4For each number, determine which stage of CALL is the statement referring to. Write (B) if it belongs to Behavioural CALL, (C) if communicative CALL, and (I) if integrative CALL.A. View of Language

_____ 1. It has a structural view of the language in which it pays great attention to the users accurate production of structures or forms.

_____ 2. It has a cognitive view of language in which it pays great attention to the users fluency in using the language._____ 3. It has a socio-cognitive view of language in which it pays great attention to the users interaction in the community and ability to perform real-life tasks.

B. Use of Computers

_____ 4. In this view of language teaching, the computer is used to provide practice activities in a non-drill format.

_____ 5. In this view of language teaching, the computer is used to provide drills and activities for extensive skill practice._____ 6. In this view of language teaching, the computer is used to provide learners real-life tasks through authentic discourse.

C. Characteristics

_____ 7. It facilitates a principle focus on the content without sacrificing a secondary focus on language form._____ 8.Proponents and adherents of this trend believe that grammar is best taught implicitly rather than explicitly

_____ 9.The computer is believed to be ideal for carrying out repeated drills, since a machine since it does not get bored presenting the same material and it can provide non-judgmental feedback._____ 10. Language learners can communicate directly, inexpensively, and conveniently with other learners or native speakers of the target language at any time and in any place._____ 11.Computers are used to stimulate discussion, writing, or critical thinking, in which learners are encouraged to generate original utterances rather than manipulate prefabricated language._____ 12.The programs avoid telling students that they are wrong and are flexible to a variety of student responses.

_____ 13.Different forms of media are used in order to integrate language skills.

_____ 14.Proponents and adherents of this trend believe that repeated exposure to a material is beneficial or even essential to learning.

_____ 15.Language learners can communicate directly, inexpensively, and conveniently with other learners or native speakers of the target language at any time and in any place.

Important Developments in Information and Communications Technology (Warschauer, 2004)1. From phone-based to wireless communication

2. From dial-up to permanent and direct-online connections

3. From personal computers to potable computing and online devices

4. From narrowband to broadband connections

5. From expensive to widely affordable computers and other hardware systems.

6. The (Internet) from being exclusive form of communication and information, mostly in developed countries, to becoming a mass form of communication in most part of the planet.

7. From text-based information and communication to audiovisual forms of information and communication8. From use of English as the main online language to multilingual Internet use9. From non-native to native users of information technology. This concept does not refer to language use, but rather to comfort and skill in using computers.10. From non-native to native users of information technology. This concept does not refer to language use, but rather to comfort and skill in using computers.11. The movement of CALL from the language laboratory to the classroomTypes of CALL Programs or MaterialsACTIVITY 5The following are some CALL programs or materials. Determine which program or material is the statement referring to.

a. CALL-specific software applications

b. computer-mediated communication

c. generic software

d. wed-based learning programs

_________________________1.These include programs or applications designed to develop and facilitate language learning, such as CD-ROMs, web-based interactive language learning exercises/quizzes (see CD-ROM examples for language learning).

_________________________2. These programs or applications are designed for general purposes, such as word-processors, presentation software and spreadsheet that can be used to support language learning.

_________________________3. These include online dictionaries, online encyclopedias, online concordances, news/magazine sites, e-texts, web-quests, web publishing, blog, etc..

_________________________4.These include online chat applications, email, discussion forum, message board etc.

How Computers Can Be Used in the Language Class

1. Teaching with one computer in the class

- delivery of content through word processor, word processory, or interactive whiteboard

2. Teaching in the computer network room (network-based language teaching)

- task-based group work /activities; computer-mediated communication (CMC): asynchronous/synchronous; pair and small group activities3. Self-access learning (independent learning)

- drills and exercises; resource searching

4. Distance learning

- delivering online course content; CMC activities: email, discussion forum, chat rooms; community buildingTeachers' Barriers to the Use of Computer-assisted Language Learning (Lee, 2000)

1. Financial Barriers

2. Availability of computer hardware and software

3. Technical and theoretical knowledge

4. Acceptance of the technology

Evaluating Computer-delivered Instructional Materials (Sokolik, in Murcia Eds., 2006)1. Appearance

a. Colors should be chosen carefully. Red/green color blindness is common, so avoid colors that are likely to cause problems for users with this. Low-glare hues are preferable for reading; grays, soft whites, blues, and browns are better choices than bright yellow, reds, and greens.b. Fonts should be simple and without serifs (This font has not serifs; this font has serifs).

c. The viewable screen should not extend to the right of the viewing space on an average computer monitor.

d. Graphics should be kept small for faster loading over slow internet connection.

e. Limit the amount of text on one page. Keep downward scrolling to a minimum.

2. Navigationa. Navigating through activity should be easy. Arrows or other navigational links should be clear to the user.

b. Avoid click here for links. Use content words for text links.

c. Provide navigation that takes the user back-ward as well as forward when practical.d. Always provide a way to quit the activity.

e. Navigation for important actions should appear on the first screen of a page. That is, the navigation should not be outside the normally visible area on an average computer monitor.

f. Navigation should be shallow. That is, learners should not have to click through screen after screen in order to reach a particular piece of information.

3. Interactivity and Feedback

a. Feedback should anticipate the learners possible wrong responses and give full explanations.

b. Correct answers should also be explained, in the even that the user chose randomly.

c. The answer must reflect full range of possible answers.

d. Links to review material should be provided when available.

e. The activity should take advantage of interactivity.

4. Value

a. The computer activity should be something that is done better with a computer than without.b. The activity should address a specific need in the panned curriculum.

5. Other considerations

a. Instructions should be minimal. Good planning should obviate the need for elaborate and complex instructions.

b. Require special hardware or software only if youre certain your users will have easy access to it.

c. Check computer-delivered activities on different types of computers, if possible. Good activities should be independent of computer type.

Activity 61. Find a website that offers a simple language lesson (preferable those sites that teach languages other than English), try it yourself and evaluate your language learning experience.2. Evaluate the website according to Sokoliks guidelines.

Questions for discussions

1. Do computers and the Internet narrow or widen the gap between the rich and poor?

2. In a developing country such as the Philippines, how can computer and the Internet be of help to the existing problems in the educational setting?3. Because of the impending traffic infrastructure projects in Metro Manila, the MMDA proposed the adoption of the distance learning system or open university scheme among universities and colleges in Metro Manila in hope to reduce the commuter and vehicular traffic volume. Are you in favor of this? Why or why not?References

Beatty, K. (2003). Teaching and researching computer-assisted language learning. New York: Longman.

Chapelle, C. A. (2001). Computer applications in second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge.

Irujo, Suzanne. (1998). Teaching bilingual children. US: Heinle

Sokolik, Maggie. (2006). Computers in Language Teaching. In Celce-Murcia. (Eds.). Teaching English as a second or foreign language. US: Heinle and Heinle

Lee, Kwan-wu. (2000). English teachers barriers to the use of computer-assisted language learning. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 12, December 2000. Retrieved February 7, 2014 from http://iteslj.org/Articles/Lee-CALLbarriers.htmlLevy, M. (1997) CALL: Context and conceptualization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

http://www.ict4lt.org/en/en_mod1-4.htm#daviesucall

Meskill, C. (2002). Teaching and learning in real time: Media, technologies, and language acquisition. Houston, TX: Athelstan.

Warschauer, M. (2004). Technological change and the future of CALL. In S. Fotos & C. Brown (Eds.), New Perspectives on CALL for Second and Foreign Language Classrooms (pp. 15-25).Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved February 9. 2014 from http://www.gse.uci.edu/person/warschauer_m/docs/future-of-CALL.pdfWarschauer, M., & Meskill, C. (2000). Technology and second language learning. In J. Rosenthal (Ed.), Handbook of undergraduate second language education. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Retrieved February 9, 2014 from http://www.gse.uci.edu/person/warschauer_m/tslt.htmlhttp://www2.nkfust.edu.tw/~emchen/CALL/unit1.htm#war2004

Prepared by:

Bernard M. Paderes

bernardpaderes@gmail.comPAGE 3

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