compressed air compendium compressed air - singlix compendium compendium compressed air compressed air

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  • Revised 6th edition 2004 The existing publication has been carefully developped. However, author and publisher do not assume liability for the correctness of statements, notes and advice as well not for eventual errata. All rights reserved. Reproduction, including that of excerpts, is forbidden. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any way (photocopy, microfilm or any other medium) or be used, copied or distributed on electronic systems, educational purposes included, without the prior written consent of the publisher. © 2004. All rights reserved by BOGE. Published by BOGE, Otto-Boge-Str. 1-7, D-33739 Bielefeld Author of editions 1-5: Ulrich Bierbaum (BOGE) 6th edition revised by Jürgen Hütter (BOGE) Printed on 80 g woodfree paper with mineralfree colours Distribution: Hoppenstedt Bonnier Zeitschriften GmbH, D-64295 Darmstadt Print: Druckhaus Darmstadt GmbH, D-64295 Darmstadt Printed in Germany ISBN: 3-935772-12-2

  • I

    Table of contents

    Contents

    1.1 The history of compressed air ...............................................1 1.1.1 The origin of compressed air ................................................1 1.1.2 The first applications of compressed air ...............................2

    1.2 Units and formula symbols ....................................................6 1.2.1 Basic units ............................................................................6 1.2.2 Compressed air units ...........................................................6

    1.3 What is compressed air ? .......................................................7 1.3.1 The composition of air ..........................................................7 1.3.2 The properties of compressed air ........................................7 1.3.3 How does compressed air behave? .....................................7

    1.4 Physical fundamentals ...........................................................8 1.4.1 Temperature .........................................................................9 1.4.2 Volume .................................................................................9 1.4.3 Pressure .............................................................................10 1.4.4 Volume flow ........................................................................11

    1.5 Compressed air in motion ....................................................13 1.5.1 Flow behaviour ...................................................................13 1.5.2 Types of flow ......................................................................13

    2.1 The advantages of compressed air .....................................14

    2.2 Pressure ranges ....................................................................17

    2.3 Possible applications for compressed air ...........................18 2.3.1 Tensioning and clamping with compressed air ...................18 2.3.2 Conveyance by compressed air .........................................18 2.3.3 Pneumatic drive systems ...................................................19 2.3.4 Spraying with compressed air ............................................19 2.3.5 Blowing and flushing with compressed air ..........................19 2.3.6 Testing and inspection with compressed air .......................20 2.3.7 Using compressed air for process control ..........................20

    2.4 Examples of specialised applications .................................21

    3.1 Compressors (compactors) ..................................................24 3.1.1 Dynamic compressors ( Turbo-compressors ) ....................24 3.1.2 Displacement compressors ................................................24

    3.2 Types of compressor ............................................................25 3.2.1 Standard compressors .......................................................26 3.2.2 Piston (reciprocating) compressor ......................................27 3.2.3 Diaphragm compressor ......................................................29 3.2.4 Free piston compressor ......................................................30 3.2.5 Rotary vane compressor ....................................................31 3.2.6 Liquid ring compressor .......................................................32 3.2.7 Screw compressor .............................................................33 3.2.8 Roots compressor ..............................................................34 3.2.9 Axial compressor ................................................................35 3.2.10 Radial compressor .............................................................36

    Part 1 Fundamentals of compressed air

    Part 2 Applications for pneumatics

    Part 3 Compressed air generators

    Chapter Page

  • II

    Table of contents

    Part 4 Control of compressors

    Chapter Page

    3.3 Piston compressors ..............................................................37 3.3.1 General ..............................................................................37 3.3.2 Suction capacity - output ....................................................38 3.3.3 Cooling ...............................................................................39 3.3.4 Coolant ...............................................................................40 3.3.5 Control of reciprocating piston compressors ......................40 3.3.6 Advantages of reciprocating piston compressors ...............40 3.3.7 Components of a piston compressor ..................................41

    3.4 Screw compressors ..............................................................42 3.4.1 General ..............................................................................42 3.4.2 Compression process ........................................................42 3.4.3 Method of operation ...........................................................43 3.4.4 Oil circuit ............................................................................44 3.4.5 Pneumatic circuit ................................................................45 3.4.6 Heat reclamation ................................................................46 3.4.7 Intake control ......................................................................46 3.4.8 Advantages of screw compressors .....................................46 3.4.9 Main components of a screw compressor ..........................47

    3.5 Components ..........................................................................48 3.5.1 Drive motor .........................................................................48 3.5.2 Drive belts ..........................................................................48 3.5.3 Belt tensioning....................................................................48 3.5.4 Inlet and pressure valves ...................................................49 3.5.5 Safety valve ........................................................................49 3.5.6 Intake filter ..........................................................................49

    3.6 Compressor lubricants and coolants ..................................50

    4.1 Pressure definitions ..............................................................51

    4.2 Operating status ....................................................................52 4.2.1 Stopped ( L

    0 ) .....................................................................52

    4.2.2 Idle ( L 1

    ) .............................................................................52 4.2.3 Part-load ............................................................................53 4.2.4 Operating load ( L2 ) ..........................................................53

    4.3 Controlling individual compressors ....................................54 4.3.1 Intermittent control .............................................................54 4.3.2 Idle mode control ................................................................54 4.3.3 Delayed intermittent control ................................................55 4.3.4 Part-load control .................................................................56 4.3.4.1 Proportional regulation .......................................................56 4.3.4.2 Frequency control ...............................................................57

    4.4. The ARS control concept .....................................................59 4.4.1 Autotronic ...........................................................................60 4.4.2 Ratiotronic ..........................................................................60 4.4.3 Supertronic .........................................................................61

  • III

    Table of contents

    Part 5 Compressed air treatment

    Chapter Page

    4.5 Control of several compressors ..........................................62 4.5.1 MCS 1 and MCS 2 .............................................................62 4.5.2 MCS 3 ................................................................................63 4.5.3 MCS 4 ................................................................................64 4.5.4 MCS 5 ................................................................................65 4.5.5 MCS 6 ..........................................................................