Complete Manual Testing Material

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  • 7/28/2019 Complete Manual Testing Material


    Complete Manual Testing Material


    1) Q. Why did you choose testing ?Ans: 1) Scope of getting the job is very very high.

    2)No need of depend upon any technology.

    3) Testing is going to be there forever.

    4) I want consistence through out my life


    2) Q. What exactly we need to get a job?

    Ans: 1) Stuff

    2) Communication skills [reading+ writing + speaking+ lesion]

    3) Confidence

    4) Dynamism

    3) Q. Why explicitly the test engineers are been recruiting in to the software companies?

    Ans: 1) Once person cannot perform two tasks efficient at a time.

    2) Sentimental attachments.

    4) Q. Who can get testing job?Ans: Any graduate who is creative can get testing job very easily

    5) Q. Why explicitly the testing engineers are been recruited into the software companies?

    Ans: 1) One person cant perform two task efficiently at a time.

    2) Sentimental Attachment.


    Project is something that is developed based on the particular customers requirements

    and used by that particular customers only.


    Product is something that is developed base on the companies specification and used by

    the multiple customers.

    NOTE:- The company will decide the specification by picking the common requirements of


    6) Q.Classical definition of quality?Ans: Quality is defined has justification of all the requirements of a customer in a product.NOTE: Quality is not defined in the product it is defined in the customer mind.

    DEFECT: Defect is defined as deviation from the requirements.

    7) Q. Latest definition of quality?

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    Ans: Quality is defined as not only the justification of the requirements but also presence of the

    value [value ..means ..user friendly]

    8) Q. What is testing?

    Ans: Testing is a process in the defects are Identified, Isolated[separately],Subject for

    Rectification[sending] Ensure that the product is defect free in order to produce a qualityproduct in the end and hence customer satisfaction.

    9)Q. What is bidding the project?

    Ans: Bidding the project is defined as request are proposal, estimation and signing off(official-agreement).

    KICK OF MEETING:- Kick off meeting is the initial meeting conducted in the softwarecompany soon after the project is signed off in order discuss the overview of the project once

    select project manager for that project.

    Us ally

    High level management [HLM]

    Project managers [PM]

    Quality managers [QM]

    Technical managers [TM]

    Development leads & Test leads

    Will be involved in this meeting Apart from them many times customer representations also

    Will be involved in this meeting.

    NOTE:- Apart from this meeting any other start up meeting in also called as kick off meeting.

    PIN [ Project Initiation Note]:- PIN It is a mail prepared by the project manager and sent the

    CEO of software company as well as to all of his core team members in order to intimate then

    that they are about to start the actual project activities.CEO=Chief Executive Officer

    COO=Chief Of Officer

    SDLC [Software Development Life Cycle]:-It contains 6 Phase

    Initial or Requirement Phase

    Analysis Phase

    Designed Phase

    Coding Phase (or) Programming phase

    Testing Phase Deliver and maintenance Phase

    Initial or Requirement Phase:-Task:-Interacting with the customer and gathering the requirements.

    Roles:- i) Business Analyst [BA]

    ii) Engagement manager [EM]

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    Process:- First of all the Business Analyst can Appointment . from the customer, collects the

    template from the company meet the customer an the appointment date gathers the requirements

    with the help of the template and come back to the company with the requirement documentary.

    The Engagement manager will go through the requirements document. If at all he

    finds any extra requirements hence he will deal with the excess cast of project. If it is any

    confession of requirements then the will ask the consult team to develop the prototype he willdemonstrates to the customer gather the clean requirements and finally hand over therequirements document to the business analyst.

    Proof:-Proof of this phase is Requirements Document.

    This document is called with different name in different companies

    FRS (Functional Requirements Specification)

    CRS (Client or Customer Requirements Specification)

    URS (User Requirements Specification)

    BDD (Business Design Document)

    BD (Business Document)

    BRS (Business Requirement Specification)

    NOTE:-Some companies may maintains two documents in the initial phase, one is forHigh levelbusiness flow information and the other in forDetail function information.

    But some companies may maintains both the intimation in a single document.

    Template:- Template in a predefined format which is used for preparing the document easily

    and perfectly

    Prototype:- Prototype is a roughly and rapidly developed model which is used is for

    demonstration to the customer in order to gather the clear requirement and also to win his

    confidence of the customer.

    Analysis phase:-Task:-

    Feasibility study Tentative planning Technology selection & Environment conformation Requirement analysisRoles:-

    System Analyst [SA] Project Manager [PM] Team &Technical Manager [TM]Process:-

    Feasibility study:- (possibility) It is a detailed study conducted on requirement in order to

    conform whether all of those requirements are possible with in the given time buget and

    resources are not.Tentative planning (Temporary):- The resource planning as well as scheduling will be

    temporary planned section.

    Technology selection & Environment conformation:- The list of all the technologies that are

    required to accomplish this project successfully will be enlisted as well as the client environment

    will be conformed here in this section.

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    Requirement analysis:- The list of all the requirements that are required by the company like

    human resource , software and hardware to accomplish that project ,successful will be enlisted

    and mentioned here in this section.

    Proof: The proof document if the analysis phase is SRS (System Requirement Specification )

    Designed Phase:-Task:- i) High Level Designing [HLD]ii) Low Level Designing [LLD]

    Roles:- i) Chief architect (CA) : is responsible for high level designing.

    ii) Technical Lead (TA): is responsible for low level designing.

    Process:- The chief architect will divided whole project into modules ,by drawing somediagrams using a language UML(Unified Modeling Language)

    The technical lead will divided the modules into sub modules by drawing some diagrams using

    the same UML.

    Apart from this takes GUI design also will be done in this phase.

    Some time pseudo code also will be developed in this phase.

    Proof:- The proof document of this phase is TDD (Technical Design Document)Pseudo code:-It isset of English statement which used for developing in the actual code very

    easily and comfortably.

    Coding Phase:-Task:- coding (or) programming

    Roles:-Developers (or) programming

    Process:- The developers will develop the actual source code with the support of technicaldesign document as well as by following the coding standards.

    Example for coding standards:

    Proper indentation Color coding.

    Proper commenting.

    Proof:- The proof document of the coding phase SCD (Source Code Document).

    Testing phase:-Task:- Testing

    Roles:- Test engineers


    Test engineers will receive the requirement document and will start understanding the


    While understanding the requirement if at all the get any doubt then they will list out all the doubtin the requirementsclarificationnote and will send it to the author of the requirementdoubt BA(Business Analyst).

    Once the clarification are given if still more clarification are required then they will conduct

    a review meeting and will get all the clarification.

    Once all the requirement are clearly understood then they will take theTest case template andwill write the test cases.

    Once the 1stBuild is released they will execute the test cases.

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    If at all any defects are found they will list out then in the defect profileand will send it to the

    development department . Once the next Build is released they will re execute the required test case.

    If at all any more defect are found they will update the defect profile and will send it to the

    development department.

    Once the next Build is released the same process will be continued. This process will be continued again and again till the product is defect free.

    Proof:- The proof the testing phase is Quality Product .

    Test Case:- If is an Idea of test engineer to test something based on the requirements.

    Delivery & Maintains Phase:-Delivery:-

    Task:- Hand overing the application to the client .

    Roles:- Deployment Engineers or Installation Engineers

    Process:- Deployment engineers will go to the clients place , install the application into theoriginal customer ,Environment and finally hand overs the software to the customer.

    Proof:- The final official argument made between the company and the customer is the proofdocument this phase.

    Maintains:- Once the customer start using the application if at all any problem occurs then thatproblem will become the task ,based on the task corresponding roles will be appointed ,these

    roles will define the process, solves the problem and final get the Application latter.

    Some customer many request for continuos maintenance in that situation thecompany will send a team of member to the customer place continuously in order to take care of

    that software.

    Q. where exactly testing comes in to picture?

    Which sort of testing you are expecting?

    How many sort or testing are there?Ans:- They are two sort of testing

    i) Un convectional testing.

    ii) Convectional testing.

    Un convectional testing:- It is a sort of testing in which the quality assurances people. Will

    check each and every role in the organization in order to conform weather they are doing their

    work according to the companies proper guidelines are not. right form the staring of the SDLCto the end of it.

    Convectional testing:- It is a sort of testing in which the test engineers will check the developed

    application (or) its related parts are working according to the expectation or not from the coding

    phase to the end of the SDLC

    Methods of the testing (or) testing techniques:-

    Basically there are two methods of testing.

    i) Black Box testing.

    ii) White Box Testing (or) Glass Box Testing (or) Clear Box Testing

    Black Box Testing:- It is a method of testing in which one will perform testing only on

    the Functional part of an application with out on the having the knowledge of structural part.

    Usually the black box Test engineers will perform it.

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    White Box Testing:- It is a method of testing in which one will perform testing on

    the Structural part of an application .

    Usually developers (or) White box testers will perform it.

    Gray Box testing:- It is a method of testing in which one will perform testing on both the

    functional part as well as the structural part of an application.

    Usually the test engineers who has the knowledge of structural part will perform it.

    Levels Of Testing:-There are five of testing

    Unit level testing. Module level testing. Integration level testing. System level testing. User acceptance level testing.Unit level testing:-Unit:- Unit is defined as smallest part of an application.(program)

    In this stage the white box testing will test each and every developed program and

    also the combination of programs.

    Module level testing:-

    Module:- Module is defined as a group of related features to perform a major taskin the


    In this stage the Black box test engineers will test the functional part of the module.

    Integration level testing:- In this stage the developers of will develop someinterface(linking

    program) in order to integrate the modules this interface will be tested by white box testers.

    Developers will follow any one of the approaches white integration the module.

    Top down approaches

    Bottom up approaches

    Hybrid approaches (or) Sand rive approached

    Big-Bang approaches

    Top down approaches:- In this approaches the parent modules will be developed first and then

    the corresponding child modules will be developed and integrated.

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    STUB:- While integrating the modules in top down approach if at all any mandatory modules

    are missing then that mandatory modules will be replace with a temporary program.Bottom up approach:- In this approached the child modules will be developed first and will beintegrated to the corresponding parent


    DRIVER:- While integrating the module in bottom up approached if at all any mandatory

    modules is missingthen that modules is replaced with a temporary program DRIVER

    Hybrid approach (or) San drive approach:- This a mixed approach of Both top down and

    bottom up approaches.

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    Big-Bang approach:- In this approach one will wait till all the modules are developed andfinally will integrate then at a time.

    System level testing:-

    System:- Once the software application is installed in to an environment then as a whole we will

    call it as a system.

    In this stage the block box test engineers will conduct many type of testing like loadtesting, performance testing, stress testing, comparability testing, system integration


    System integration testing:- It is a type of testing in which on will perform some action on

    module and check for the reflections in all the related are as of the application.

    User acceptance level testing:- In this stage the block box test engineer will perform testing on

    the user desired areas in the presence of accept the application happy.

    Environment:-Environment defined as group of hardware compounds with some basic

    software (OS) where one can install the Presentation Logic, Business Logic, Data Base Logic.


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    Environment defends as combinations of three layer that isPresentation Layer,

    Business Layer, Data Base Layer. Where once can install the Presentation Logic, Business

    Logic, Data Base Logic.

    Type Of Environment:-

    Stand Alone Environment (or) One Tier Architecture. Client Sever Environment (or) Two Tier Architecture.

    Web Based Environment (or) Three Tier Architecture.

    Distributed Environment (or) N-Tier Architecture.

    Stand Alone Environment (or) One Tier Architecture:-

    In this environment only one tier will be there. Presentation layer, business layer, data

    base layer will be present in the same tier.

    When ever the application need to be used by single user at time then

    environment will be suggested.

    Client Sever Environment (or) Two Tier Architecture:- In this environment two tier will bethere .one is for client and another is for data base server. Presentation layer and the business

    layer will be ava...