Complete Digital Photography, Fourth Edition (Graphics Series)

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  • COMPLETE DIGITALPHOTOGRAPHY

    FOURTH EDITION

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  • COMPLETE DIGITALPHOTOGRAPHY

    FOURTH EDITION

    BEN LONG

    CHARLES RIVER MEDIA

    Boston, Massachusetts

  • Copyright 2007 Career & Professional Group, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.Published by Charles River Media, an imprint of Thomson Learning Inc.All rights reserved.

    No part of this publication may be reproduced in any way, stored in a retrieval system of any type, ortransmitted by any means or media, electronic or mechanical, including, but not limited to, photocopy,recording, or scanning, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.

    Cover Design: Tyler CreativeCover Image: Ben Long

    CHARLES RIVER MEDIA25 Thomson PlaceBoston, Massachusetts 02210617-757-7900617-757-7951 (FAX)crm.info@thomson.comwww.charlesriver.com

    This book is printed on acid-free paper.

    Ben Long. Complete Digital Photography. ISBN-10: 1-58450-520-6ISBN-13: 978-1-58450-520-4

    All brand names and product names mentioned in this book are trademarks or service marks of their respective companies. Any omission or misuse (of any kind) of service marks or trademarks should notbe regarded as intent to infringe on the property of others. The publisher recognizes and respects allmarks used by companies, manufacturers, and developers as a means to distinguish their products.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataLong, Ben, 1967-Complete digital photography / Ben Long.

    p. cm.Includes index.ISBN 1-58450-520-6 (pbk. with cd : alk. paper)1. Photography--Digital techniques--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2.Digital cameras--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 3. Image processing--Digitaltechniques--Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title. TR267.L66 2007775--dc22

    2007018885

    Printed in the United States of America07 7 6 5 4 3 2 First Edition

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    eISBN-10: 1-58450-666-0

    www.charlesriver.com
  • CONTENTS

    C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N 1Is This the Right Book for You? 3How This Book Is Organized 3What Counts as Digital Photography 6The Best-Laid Plans 6What Software Do You Need? 6Digital 101: A Few Basic Ideas 7

    C H A P T E R 2 H O W A D I G I T A L C A M E R A W O R K S 1 1Something Old, Something New 12A Little Color Theory 13How An Image Sensor Works 15How Your Camera Makes an Image 22How JPEG Compression Works 26Meanwhile, Back in the Real World 27

    C H A P T E R 3 B A S I C P H O T O G R A P H Y : A Q U I C K P R I M E R 2 9Lenses 30Exposures: Apertures, Shutter Speeds, and ISO 33Mostly the Same 39

    v

  • C H A P T E R 4 E V A L U A T I N G A N I M A G E 4 1How Things Look On-Screen Doesnt Always Matter 42The Top Nine Imaging Problems Youre Likely to Encounter 43Good or Bad, Who Can Tell Why? 53

    C H A P T E R 5 C H O O S I N G A D I G I T A L C A M E R A 5 5Budget 57Point-and-Shoot or SLR 57Resolution 61Point-and-Shoot Lens Specifications 68Basic Controls 70Camera Design 78Features 91Whats in the Box? 119Special Features 121Accessories 124What Should I Buy? 131

    C H A P T E R 6 B U I L D I N G A W O R K S T A T I O N 1 3 3Choosing an Operating System 134Building Your System 135Software 141Accessories 153Preparing Your Monitor 154Ready! Aim! 158

    C H A P T E R 7 S H O O T I N G 1 5 9Seeing, Interpreting, and Composing an Image 160Five Practices for Better Shooting 175Initial Camera Settings 183Building a Shot 186Simple Flash Photography 212Power and Storage Management 219And Thats Just the Beginning! 223

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  • Contents vii

    C H A P T E R 8 M E T E R I N G A N D E X P O S U R E 2 2 5What You Can Do with Exposure Adjustments 226How to Adjust Exposure 236In-Camera Histograms 244Bracketing 249Exposing for Raw 251Exposing to Avoid Chromatic Aberration (Purple Fringing) 255Taking Control 256

    C H A P T E R 9 S P E C I A L S H O O T I N G 2 5 7Stable Shooting 258Black-and-White Photography 262Black-and-White Shooting 263External Flash 267Controlling Available Light 273Macro Photography 276Landscape Photography 279Shooting Panoramas 283High Dynamic Range (HDR) Imaging 293Underwater Photography 295Tethered Shooting 296Using Filters 296Shooting in Extreme Conditions 299Halfway There 304

    C H A P T E R 1 0 W O R K F L O W 3 0 5Post-Production Workflow 306Apple Aperture and Adobe Photoshop Lightroom 313Learning More 316

    C H A P T E R 1 1 C O R R E C T I N G T O N E A N D C O L O R 3 1 7Histograms Revisited 319Cropping and Distortion Correction 320Tutorial 11.1 Cropping an Image 320Tutorial 11.2 Straightening an Image 324Tutorial 11.3 Correcting Barrel and Pincushion Distortion in Photoshop CS2/CS3 328

  • Tutorial 11.4 Correcting Perspective in Photoshop CS2/CS3 331Tutorial 11.5 Correcting Chromatic Aberration with Photoshop CS2/ CS3 333Corrrecting Tone 335Tutorial 11.6 Using Levels Input Sliders 337Tutorial 11.7 Adjusting a Real-World Image 342Should You Worry about Data Loss? 346Curves 348Tutorial 11.8 Correcting Tone with Curves 350Levels and Curves and Color 356Tutorial 11.9 Correcting a Color Cast 358Tutorial 11.10 Correcting Color with Curves 361Hue/Saturation 365Tutorial 11.11 Adjusting Saturation 366The Story So Far 368

    C H A P T E R 1 2 R A W C O N V E R S I O N 3 7 1Raw Workflow 372Raw Editing 376Copying Your Edits from One Image to Another 390What More Do You Need? 391

    C H A P T E R 1 3 B U I L D I N G Y O U R E D I T I N G A R S E N A L 3 9 3What Youll Learn in This Chapter 394Brushes and Stamps 394Tutorial 13.1 Cloning Video Tutorial 397Masks 399Tutorial 13.2 Creating Complex Masks 407Layers 414Other Editing Tools 419

    C H A P T E R 1 4 I M A G I N G T A C T I C S 4 2 1Editing Order 422Converting Color Images to Grayscale 423Finding Black and White Images 427Retouching 428Tutorial 14.1 430

    viii Contents

  • Contents ix

    Additional Editing Techniques 433Tutorial 14.2 436Tutorial 14.3 441Color Adjustment 445Tutorial 14.4 446Editing 453Tutorial 14.5 Video Tutorial: Painting Light and Shadow 461Photoshop CS2/CS3 Smart Objects 462Tutorial 14.6 Working with Smart Objects 462

    C H A P T E R 1 5 S P E C I A L E F F E C T S 4 6 9Simulating Depth of Field 470Tutorial 15.1 Shortening Depth of Field in an Image 470Stitching Panoramas 475Creating Hand-Tinted Images 478Applying Effects by Painting 481Adding Texture, Grain, and Film Look 482Cleaning Portraits 483Compositing 485High Dynamic Range Imaging 486

    C H A P T E R 1 6 O U T P U T 4 9 1Resizing 492Tutorial 16.1 Understanding Resolution 495Sharpening 500Painting Sharpening 503Tutorial 16.2 Selective Sharpening of a Portrait 504Web and E-mail Output 509Outputting Electronic Files 512Choosing a Printer 513Printing 524Tutorial 16.3 Generating a Soft Proof in Adobe Photoshop 529Tutorial 16.4 Printing from Photoshop 531Conclusion 538

  • A P P E N D I X A G L O S S A R Y 5 3 9

    A P P E N D I X B A B O U T T H E C D - R O M 5 5 3

    I N D E X 5 5 5

    x Contents

  • C H A P T E R

    1 INTRODUCTION

    1

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    68 163 181 191 191 191 191209 209 209

    96 168 183 193 198 201 201206 211 214

    114

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