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J. Dent. 1992; 20: 3 19-320 319 International Abstracts Section Editor: W. R. E. Laird Assistant Section Editor: A. D. Walmsley Experimentelle Untersuchungen iiber die Materialeigenschaften von Calciumsalicylatzementen ohne und mit Polymerzusatz. (Experimental study on the physical properties of calcium salicylate cements with and without the addition of polymers.) Staehle H. J., Khouri N. (199 1) Zahn. We/t/Reform. 100, 442-449. A new calcium salicylate cement with an additional polymerized filler material (Alkaliner) was compared with a commonly used calcium salicylate cement without polymerized filler material (Dycal) in respect of microstructure, EDX elemental analysis, hydroxide ion release, compressive strength and film thickness. Alkaliner and Dycal are almost identical in respect of their micromorphology and elementary composition (EDX analysis). In the titration test, Dycal and Alkaliner showed no significant differences (P = 0.05) in the hydroxide ion release. After storing the specimens in synthetic saliva for 2 days, the compressive strength of 25 MPa was noted for both materials. After 150 days, the compressive strength of Alkaliner (8.3 MPa) is significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of Dycal (3.8 MPa). The film thickness was measured by placing the materials between dry glass-plates. Dycal had an average thickness of 19.8 pm and Alkaliner 30 pm. Under these experimental conditions the measured difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Placing the materials between damp glass-plates, the film thickness increased to an average of 56.6 pm (Dycal) and 50 pm (Alkaliner) respectively. This difference however is statistically not significant (P > 0.05). (8 references) Author’s abstract Selected by W. Kullmann The forming phase and various properties of Au, Ag, Cu and Ga mixture in metal fired crowns. Yoshida T., Miyasaka T., Okamura H. et al. (1990) Jpn. J. Dent. Mater. 9. 812-824. A new time-saving method has been developed to produce artificial crowns by kneading. Plastic mixtures of gallium and other metal particles are kneaded into the desired shape and then heated for hardening. In the present experiment, gallium was triturated with powdered gold, silver and copper to make binary alloy samples. The dimensional change was measured between heat treatments. After heat treatment, the test piece was examined for compressive strength, compressive @ 1992 Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. 0300-5712/92/050319-02 shrinkage, hardness, tarnishing and difference in phase. The ability of Au-Ga samples to bear compressive strength, when heated at 300 “C or more (AuGa, + AuGa), became 2.6 times greater than that of non-heat- treated specimens. The compressive strength of Ag-Ga samples dropped briefly at 350°C (Ag,,,, Ga,,,, + Ag, Ga) but increased at 450°C (Ag, Ga + AgGa). The strength of Cu-Ga pieces fell by half at 475°C (CuGa, + unknown phase). A compression test showed that the contraction percentage of Au and Ag specimens became large as a result of heat treatment, while that of Cu alloys remained almost unchanged. The results of a hardness test (HV) were comparable to those of the compressive strength test. The Au-Ga alloys increased in hardness after high- temperature treatment. In the Ag-Ga alloys, hardness declined at 350°C and increased at 450°C. There was no difference in hardness between Cu specimens after heat treatment and those allowed to stand at room temperature. A tarnishing test revealed that Au-Ga samples turned slightly yellowish. In the case of Ag-Ga samples, the reflectivity Y (%) dipped slightly but discolouration was not recognizable. However, the Cu-Ga samples which were heated at temperatures of up to 280°C showed a slight drop in reflectivity, but those heated at temperatures higher than 280°C decreased to 50-66% in reflectivity and turned black. (5 references) H. Hisamitsu Comparison of the different methods for assessing the severity of endogenic intoxication in patients with maxillofacial phlegmons Galina S. S., Perbokas F., Gabrielyan N. I. et al. (1990) J. Stomatol. USSR 2, 32-34. One hundred and fifty-six patients were examined. Severity of intoxication was assessed by Leucocytic Index of lntoxicatian (LII), Paramecium Test (PT) and measurement of the Middle Molecule Level (MML). A significant increase in LII was established in a majority of the patients on the second day after surgical treatment. PT showed a decrease in all patients in the postoperation period. Concentration of the middle molecules (MM) increased significantly in blood after operation. However, as the patients recovered, the MM level gradually decreased, reaching normal after 12-l 5 days. The study demonstrated that the three methods reflect the severity of maxillofacial phlegmons. LII and PT values remained higher and lower, respectively, than the norm, while MML was virtually normal just before the patients were

Comparison of the different methods for assessing the severity of endogenic intoxication in patients with maxillofacial phlegmons

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Page 1: Comparison of the different methods for assessing the severity of endogenic intoxication in patients with maxillofacial phlegmons

J. Dent. 1992; 20: 3 19-320 319

International Abstracts

Section Editor: W. R. E. Laird

Assistant Section Editor: A. D. Walmsley

Experimentelle Untersuchungen iiber die Materialeigenschaften von Calciumsalicylatzementen ohne und mit Polymerzusatz. (Experimental study on the physical properties of calcium salicylate cements with and without the addition of polymers.) Staehle H. J., Khouri N. (199 1) Zahn. We/t/Reform. 100, 442-449.

A new calcium salicylate cement with an additional polymerized filler material (Alkaliner) was compared with a commonly used calcium salicylate cement without polymerized filler material (Dycal) in respect of microstructure, EDX elemental analysis, hydroxide ion release, compressive strength and film thickness. Alkaliner and Dycal are almost identical in respect of their micromorphology and elementary composition (EDX analysis). In the titration test, Dycal and Alkaliner showed no significant differences (P = 0.05) in the hydroxide ion release. After storing the specimens in synthetic saliva for 2 days, the compressive strength of 25 MPa was noted for both materials. After 150 days, the compressive strength of Alkaliner (8.3 MPa) is significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of Dycal (3.8 MPa). The film thickness was measured by placing the materials between dry glass-plates. Dycal had an average thickness of 19.8 pm and Alkaliner 30 pm. Under these experimental conditions the measured difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Placing the materials between damp glass-plates, the film thickness increased to an average of 56.6 pm (Dycal) and 50 pm (Alkaliner) respectively. This difference however is statistically not significant (P > 0.05). (8 references) Author’s abstract Selected by W. Kullmann

The forming phase and various properties of Au, Ag, Cu and Ga mixture in metal fired crowns. Yoshida T., Miyasaka T., Okamura H. et al. (1990) Jpn. J. Dent. Mater. 9. 812-824.

A new time-saving method has been developed to produce artificial crowns by kneading. Plastic mixtures of gallium and other metal particles are kneaded into the desired shape and then heated for hardening. In the present experiment, gallium was triturated with powdered gold, silver and copper to make binary alloy samples. The dimensional change was measured between heat treatments. After heat treatment, the test piece was examined for compressive strength, compressive

@ 1992 Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. 0300-5712/92/050319-02

shrinkage, hardness, tarnishing and difference in phase. The ability of Au-Ga samples to bear compressive strength, when heated at 300 “C or more (AuGa, + AuGa), became 2.6 times greater than that of non-heat- treated specimens. The compressive strength of Ag-Ga samples dropped briefly at 350°C (Ag,,,, Ga,,,, + Ag, Ga) but increased at 450°C (Ag, Ga + AgGa). The strength of Cu-Ga pieces fell by half at 475°C (CuGa, + unknown phase).

A compression test showed that the contraction percentage of Au and Ag specimens became large as a result of heat treatment, while that of Cu alloys remained almost unchanged. The results of a hardness test (HV) were comparable to those of the compressive strength test. The Au-Ga alloys increased in hardness after high- temperature treatment. In the Ag-Ga alloys, hardness declined at 350°C and increased at 450°C. There was no difference in hardness between Cu specimens after heat treatment and those allowed to stand at room temperature. A tarnishing test revealed that Au-Ga samples turned slightly yellowish. In the case of Ag-Ga samples, the reflectivity Y (%) dipped slightly but discolouration was not recognizable. However, the Cu-Ga samples which were heated at temperatures of up to 280°C showed a slight drop in reflectivity, but those heated at temperatures higher than 280°C decreased to 50-66% in reflectivity and turned black. (5 references) H. Hisamitsu

Comparison of the different methods for assessing the severity of endogenic intoxication in patients with maxillofacial phlegmons Galina S. S., Perbokas F., Gabrielyan N. I. et al. (1990) J. Stomatol. USSR 2, 32-34.

One hundred and fifty-six patients were examined. Severity of intoxication was assessed by Leucocytic Index of lntoxicatian (LII), Paramecium Test (PT) and measurement of the Middle Molecule Level (MML). A significant increase in LII was established in a majority of the patients on the second day after surgical treatment. PT showed a decrease in all patients in the postoperation period. Concentration of the middle molecules (MM) increased significantly in blood after operation. However, as the patients recovered, the MM level gradually decreased, reaching normal after 12-l 5 days. The study demonstrated that the three methods reflect the severity of maxillofacial phlegmons. LII and PT values remained higher and lower, respectively, than the norm, while MML was virtually normal just before the patients were

Page 2: Comparison of the different methods for assessing the severity of endogenic intoxication in patients with maxillofacial phlegmons

320 J. Dent. 1992; 20: No. 5

discharged. Bearing in mind the high toxicity of MM, one should acknowledge that normalization of other indices of intoxication can only be expected after complete normalization of MML and it is this index that reflects the course of the diseases. (13 references) Labeja Charles

Aufbereitung von Wurzelkantilen mit Excimer-Lasern. (Root canal preparation using excimer lasers.) Frentzen M., Koort H. J. and Nolden R. (1991) Dtsch ZahnBrztl. Z. 46,288-289.

As an alternative in endodontics to mechanical methods for root canal treatment, the use of a XeCI-excimer laser to prepare the canal wall was studied. In a light- microscopic investigation undecalcified sections of laser- treated extracted human teeth showed that it was not possible to remove dentine in the root canal. Pulpal tissues remained in all wall areas. The available energy densities of this laser type seem to be insufficient to ablate pulpal tissues or wall dentine. (9 references) Author’s abstract Selected by W. Kullmann

Erfaringer med Frialit enkeltannsimplantat. (Frialit ceramic implants - a 4 year follow-up study.) Stuge U. and Ellingsen J. E. (1991) Nor. Tannlegeforen. Tid. 101,296-303.

Sixty-two ceramic implants (Frialit, Friedrichsfeld GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) were inserted in 53 patients with agenesis or loss of single teeth due to trauma or infection. Sixty-three per cent of the implants were surgically inserted immediately after tooth extraction, whereas the rest were inserted in a healed bony alveolar ridge. Eighty- five per cent of the implants were replacements for maxillary incisors. The average observation period was 4 years. During this period 10 implants were removed due to lack of osseointegration. Seven of these implants were lost in the healing period, the remaining three were removed after placement of the suprastructure. fighty- four per cent of the implants were successful after 4 years. New trauma to the maxillary region caused fractures of the implants in five patients, creating therapeutic problems which have been difficult to solve satisfactorily. (18 references) Author’s abstract Selected by Einar Bera

Esame comparative dello spessore medio ottenibile con i diversi cementi odontoiatrici. (Comparative study of the mean thickness obtained with different dental cements.)

Cenna S. and Centoni M. (199 1) Minerva Stomato/. 40, 435-438.

Achieving a minimal film thickness is a common goal in seating a cast restoration regardless of the cementing media used. Improved casting retention, decreased dissolution, and maintenance of established occlusal relationship are associated with low film thickness. A comparative analysis on several dental cements was undertaken measuring the film thickness of the material mixed for 5 s and subjected for 3 min at a load of 5 kg. Cements tested were: zinc oxyphosphate (Harvard), zinc- oxide eugenol (Ternrex), polycarboxylate (Durelon), bis GMA (Dual cement), glass ionomer (Ketac Cem), and acrylic resin (Resin cement) by using a traditional ADA glass-plate technique. The ADA established a maximum allowable film thickness of 25 pm in specification nos 8, 2 1 and 30. The lowest results of thickness in this study were obtained with glass ionomer cements (15.8 p) and zinc phosphate cements (2 7.8 p). The results obtained with the other cements were not consistent with the ADA specification. (15 references) Mario Pezzoli

Sistemsi adesivi dentinali e test di trazione tensile. (Dentinal bonding agents and tensile bond strength.) Nucci C., Prati C. and Piana G. (1991) Minerva Stomato/. 40,439-44 1.

This study evaluated the tensile bond strength of four dentinal bonding agents to the dentine surface. Materials tested were: Clearfil new bond (Kuraray Japan), Scotchbond DC and Scotchbond 2 (3M, USA), and Superbond (Sun Medical Japan). Tensile bond tests were made using an universal testing machine at 5 mm min-’ crosshead speed. Human extracted third molars were mounted with self-curing acrylic resin in cylindrical moulds. The dentine occlusal surface was ground with 320-grit silicon carbide abrasive paper. Bonding agents were prepared according to the manufacturers’ directions and applied on the dentine surface. Cylindrical Teflon tubes were placed on the dentine surface, filled with a microfilled resin (Silux, 3M) then photopolymerized for 100 s. The samples were then stored in a humidifier at 37°C for 24 h. Six specimens were prepared for each group. Student’s t test showed a statistically significant difference among the four groups. Superbond showed the highest bond strength, Scotchbond DC the lowest. Scotchbond 2 and Clearfil gave intermediate results. In two cases Superbond and Scotchbond 2 showed a dentine bond value superior to the cohesive value of resin composite. (9 references) Mario Pezzoli