Comparison of Hausa Music and the Music of Samuel BarberPresentation by Sarah Victor
Demographics of the HausasCountry: Nigeria (West Africa)Population: 25,391,000Life Expectancy: 5633% unemployed, 25% literateReligion: Islam (Sunni) Languages: English, Hausa
Hausa History1500: Islam was introduced by traders, religion was forced upon them1804-1808: holy wars, conquered by Fulani, strongly Islamic neighborsBecame slaves until early 1900s20th century: colonized by British
Hausa CultureEither commoners or chiefsMarry close relativesWife must appear unhappyTakes care of children, pleases husbandWomen have less opportunityHigh divorce rateLand divided into 7 states based on strengths
Language & MusicHausa is numerically one of the worlds most popular languagesHausa word Boog, meaning to beat is a linguistic precursor for the English phrase Boogie-WoogieA repetitive drum pattern is typical of Hausan music, much like the redundant base-line of American Boogie-Woogie
Hausa InstrumentsKuntigi A one or two-stringed luteGojeDondo DrumKakaki 3-4 meters long, metal trumpetShekere
Louange Aux Gens Du Terroir/Praise Of The People Of The Land Recorded on the album Nigeria. Hausa Music. Traditions of the Emirate of Kano by Various Artists: Maryam Yusuf Kabara, Murja Ibrahim, Safiya Ayuba Kigama, Jumoke Abdulrazak, Sa'adatu Abubakar, Sadiya Muhammad Sunusi, A'isha Baballe, Maijida Umar Abdullahi.
Song IntroductionHausa music is traditionally used to celebrate major life events such as births, marriages, and circumcisionsMy selection is a celebration, or praise, of the people of the land
Listen!The repetitive bass line of the drum beats continually while the vocalists improvise and create their own melodies over the bass lineThe celebratory nature of Hausa music is representative of the jovial dancing associated with current day BoogieChorus becomes very loud
Samuel BarberBorn March 9, 1910 in West Chester, PennsylvaniaStudied at Curtis Institute of MusicAmerican Prix de Rome, two Pulitzers, elected to American Academy of Arts & LettersFamous works include Adagio for Strings and his opera Vanessa
Samuel BarberCurtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia
Samuel Barbers MusicCalled a Neo-Romantic composerbroad lyricism and dramatic expressionRarely ventured into Americana music
Excursions, Op. 20First published solo piano piece of Barber & his only excursion into Americana musicIncludes elements of boogie-woogie, blues, cowboy, and hoedown musicFour movementsInspired by Jeanna Behrend Debuted by Vladimir Horowitz in July 1944 at Carnegie Hallhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1L2Cn8ZFFzI
New Grove Dictionary of Musica percussive style of piano Blues favoured for its volume and momentum is characterized by the use of blues chord progressions combined with a forceful, repetitive left-hand bass figure [and] independence of the right-hand improvisations from the steady, rolling rhythm maintained by the left hand
This excerpt is an example of the repetitive left hand bass figure with right hand improvisations, a classic characteristic of Boogie-Woogie music.
Measure 4-9 demonstrate the momentum characteristic of Boogie music, with quarter notes that transition to eighth notes, and eventually sixteenth notes.
This excerpt represents the extreme dynamics of volume, with frequent shifts from sf to pp .
Excursions Music TheoryA1BA2CA3Coda A section are in tonic key of C minorB section uses subdominant f, C uses dominant GI-IV-I-V-I simple progressionB and C sections use bitonality 7th chords used in melody
Music Theory ~ ConnectionThe West African word Bogi means to danceThe Hausa word Boog means to beat, as in a drumThese are linguistic precursors for the American term Boogie, a style of music which is closely associated with dance with a repetitively beating bass
Comparison (Continued)Both selections of music possess the repetitive bass figure reminiscent of boogie music with right hand improvisationsThe origin of the term boogie is technically unknown, however these similarities insinuate that the celebratory nature of dance and style of American Boogie music derivate from West African tribes such as the Hausas.
Similarities & DifferencesOstinato left-hand bass lineRight-hand improvisation for melodyAspects of volume Allegro Tempo: 152 and 144Very energetic from startRecognizable melodyVocals/DrumsCelebratory soundAlternation between soloist then chorusNo chord progressions, just drum beat Piano soloVery dissonantMinor keyUse of blues chordsChord progression and structure