Comparing Several Teaching Methods (1)

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  • 8/17/2019 Comparing Several Teaching Methods (1)


    Natural Approach Communicative LanguageTeaching (CLT)

    Audio-lingual Method(ALM)


    Crashen & Terrell/ 19 !/19" Charles #ries /19$9

    Goals   Students can acquire the

    target languages in a naturaland communicative situation.

      Be able to communicate

    with others in the targetlanguage in differentsituations

      Be able to listen, speak,

    read, and write in the targetlanguage, with emphasis onlistening and speaking

     Mother Tongue  No mother tongue Both mother tongue andtarget language

      Less mother tongue

     Merits 1. Students acquire the targetlanguage in a natural andeas wa.

    !. "eaching materials are

    designed ver well.

    Students ca acquirelanguage from eas to

    difficult, from simple to

    comple#, and from

    concrete to abstract.

    1. Students have theopportunities to e#presstheir own thoughts andopinions.

    !. Students have the

    opportunities to

    communicate with each

    other in the classroom.

    $. Students can learn the

    culture of the target

    language because the

    teaching materials are

    related to the social


    %. "he communicative

    situation makes students

    reconstruct their

    knowledge and thoughts,

    so students can learn to

    fluentl speak the target

    language more easil.

    1. Students can learn targetlanguage in natural order&listening'speaking' reading'writing.

    !. Students can speak the

    correct answers without

    thinking b overlearning.

     Limits 1. Students ma use the target

    language fluentl, but thecannot use it accuratel.

    !. "eachers should collect

    various teaching aids and

    use them appropriatel.

    $. Special teaching designs is

    necessar for the students

    with better abilities.

    1. (t)s difficult for a

    nonnative spea%ingteacher who is not ver proficient in the targetlanguage to teacheffectivel. Teachertraining and certiicationare needed.

    !. Students) pronunciation

    and grammatical

    knowledge is poor.

    $. (t is difficult for teachersto evaluate students)

    e#pression in the learning

    1. (t fails to teach the long*

    term communicative proficienc.

    !. Structural linguistics

    didn)t tell us everthing

    about language that we

    needed to know.

    $. (t)s impossible and

    unnecessar to teach

    students without using

    native languages.

    %. (t)s boring for students to

    overlearn the drills and

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     process. it)s tiring for teachers to


    Teaching Aids  +isual aids, such as pictures,maps, advertisement games

    -a(nteresting and meaningfulmaterials, such as linguisticgames, role plas, and

     problem solving materials.

    -b "echnolog'films,videos, "+, computers, can be

    used as teaching aids.

     "e#tbooks, drills, tapes,language labs

     Features 1. 5 important h'pothesis

    /. the Acuisition-Learning 0

    Students acquire language

    subconsciousl in the

    natural and communicative


    B. the Monitor 0

    Students ma call upon

    learned knowledge to

    correct themselves when

    the communicate, but that

    conscious learning has onl

    this function.

    C. the Natural rder 0

      "he acquisition of

    grammatical structures

     proceeds in a predictable


    . the *nput (i+1) 0

    Students acquire language

     best b understanding input

    that is slightl beond theircurrent level of competence.

    2. the Aective #ilter 0

    Student work should center

    on meaningful

    communication rather than

    on form input should be

    interesting and so contribute

    to a rela#ed classroom



    !. "he teacher was the

    1. Language learning islearning to communicate."he primar function oflanguage is forinteraction andcommunication.

    !. Classroom goals arefocused on all of the

    components of


    competence and not

    restricted to grammatical

    or linguistic competence

    $. Students learn to use the

    appropriate language

    forms in the different


    %. Communicative activities

    include unctional

    communicative activities

    and social interaction


    3. "eachers are assistants,

    guides, counselors and

    group process managers.

    4. Students are e#pected to

    interact ,ith each other

    rather than with the


    5. Learners should take the

    responsibilit of the failed


    6. Language is created '

    the individual through

    1. New material is presentedin dialogue forms

    !. "here)s dependence on

    mimicr', memori.ation

    o set phrases, and

    overlearning.$. Structural patterns are

    taught using repetitive


    %. "here)s little or no

    grammatical e#planation.

    7rammar is taught b

    inductive analog

    e#planation.3. "here is much use of

    tapes language las and

    visual aids0

    4. (t is based on ehaviorist

    ps'cholog'. Students)

    successful responses are

    immediatel reinforced

    and their errors are

    corrected immediatel.

    5. "he teaching seuences

    are aural training,

     pronunciation training,

    speaking, reading, and


    6. Structures are sequenced

     b means of contrastive

    anal'sis and taught one at

    a time.

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    source of the learner)s

    input and the creator of

    an interesting and

    stimulating variet of

    classroom activities.

    $. Learners don)t need to saanthing during the 8silent

    period9 until the feel

    read to do so.

    %. Start with T23  commands.

    3. :se visuals, tpicall

    maga;ine pictures, to

    introduce new vocabular.

    4. "he focus in the classroom

    is on listening and

    reading abilities.

    5. No sentence patterns

     practice and no error

    correction during the

     process of acquisition.

    trial and error. Correction

    o errors ma' e asent

    or inreuent.

    eading and

    ?riting can start from the

    first da, if desired.

    4'pothesis 5einition

    the Acuisition-Learning 0 8/cquisition9 is a unconscious and intuitive process of constructing thesstem of a language. 8Learning9 refers to a process in which conscious rulesabout a language are developed. Learning cannot lead to acquisition.

    the Monitor 0 Conscious learning can function onl as a monitor or editor that checks andrepairs the output of the acquired sstem.

    the Natural rder 0 "he acquisition of grammatical structures proceeds in a predictable order.2rrors are signs of naturalistic developmental processes and duringacquisition, similar developmental errors occur in learners, no matter whattheir mother tongue is.

    the *nput (i+1) 0 @eople acquire language best b understanding input that is slightl beondtheir current level of competence. (f an acquirer is at stage or level 8i9, the

    input -she understands should contain 8iA1.9 (nput should neither be so far beond their reach nor so close to their current stage.

      "he abilit to speak fluentl cannot be taught directl it emerges

    independentl in time.

    the Aective #ilter 0 "he learner)s emotional state or attitudes as an adustable filter that freel passes, impedes, or blocks input necessar to acquisition. "hree kinds ofaffective or attitudinal variables are& -1 motivation, -! self*confidence -$an#iet. "he best acquisition will occur in environments where an#iet is lowand defensiveness absent.

    5irect Method Natural Approach6imilarit'

    1. (t emphasi;ed that the principles underling themethod were believed to conform to the principles

    1. (t is believed to conform to the naturalistic principles found in successful second acquisition.

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    of naturalistic language learning in oungchildren.

    5ierence focuses on&

    1. "eacher monologues

    !. irect repetition

    $. Dormal questions and answers%. /ccurate production of target language sentences

     N/ focuses on&

    1. 2#posure input

    !. Eptimi;ing emotional preparedness for learning

    $. Listening F >eading

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    Total 2h'sical 3esponse(T23)

    Communit' Language Learning (CLL)

    Counseling Learning Method


    Asher/ 1978 Curran/1971

    Goals  Be able to respond phsicall to the sentencesmade in the target language.

    "o get the language competence and performance b askingquestions.

     Mother Tongue  No mother tongue Both mother tongue and the target language

     Merits 1. (t provides rapid andrather permanentlanguage gains on earllevels, so students canremember the learnedvocabular for a longtime.

    !. Students respond

    activel and feelinterested in the learning


    $. (t)s eas for teachers to

    teach students verbs.

    1. 2ach student lowers the defenses that prevent openinterpersonal communication.

    !. "he an#iet caused b the educational conte#t is lessened

     b means of the supportive communit.

    $. "he teacher)s presence is not perceived as a threat, but as

    a counselor.

     Limits 1. (t)s difficult to teach theastract content with"@> 

    !. Students) pronunciation

    is poor.$. "eachers have to do

    ovious actions

    carefull or students

    would be confused and

     be misled b the

    unnecessar hints.

    %. "@> has been an

    e#perimental model

    with volunteer students

    its, not useul for the

    inactive students.

    3. "@> is especiall

    effective in the

     beginning levels of

    language proficienc,

     but then loses its

    distinctiveness as

    learners advance in their


    1. "he counselor*teacher can be too nondirective. Someintensive inductive struggle is a necessar component ofsecond language learning. Learning 8 b being told9 ismuch better.

    !. "ranslation is an intricate and comple# process that is

    often 8easier said then done.9 (f subtle aspects of

    language are mistranslated, there could be a less than

    effective understanding.

    $. "he training is required for an ideal knower. -she would

    have a perfect command of the foreign language and

    would have to be professionall competent in both

     pscholog and linguistics.

    %. (t has limitations in a large*group situation with one


    3. "here)s a need for clients who speak a common


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    Teaching Aids   No te#t. Bod language and practical materials.

      +arious materials for different purposes colored codedsignals tapes recorders

     Features 1. Based on $ importanthpothesis&

    -/ the io-program 0

    Children, in learning

    their first language,appear to do a lot of

    listening before the

    speak, and their listening

    is accomplished b

     phsical responses.

    -B the rain

    Laterali.ation 0

    otor activit is a right*

     brain function that

    should precede left*brain

    language processing' 


    -C 3eduction o 6tress 0

    /n important condition

    for successful language

    learning is the absence

    of stress.

    !. *mperative-祈使句

    drills are the maor

    classroom activit in


    $. Commands are eas

    first, and then become

    more and more

    comple#.%. Students are listeners

    and perormers. "he

    do a lot of listening and

    acting until the master

    the commands. "he are

    required to respond both

    individuall and


    3. Students respond to the

    commands phsicall.

    1. "he sense of belonging needed b both students andteachers.

    !. Both teachers and students have the responsibilit for the

    learning activit.

    $. (n a good knower*client relationship, there quickldevelops a warm, smpathetic attitude of mutual trust

    and respect. "he client emulates the language and person

    of the knower the knower is fulfilled and enriched

    through the counseling*teaching e#perience.

    %. ore important to learners is the freedom and initiative

    the are permitted.

    3. "he most basic ingredient in CLL is a mutual interest,

    respect and concern of teachers for students and students

    for students.

    4. / group of ideas concerning the pschological

    requirements for successful learning are collected under

    the acronm' 6A35. -6*securit, A*attention and

    aggression, 3 *retention and reflection, 5*discrimination

    5. "he teaching procedure&

    -a "he students sit in a circle, and the teacher-s is-are

    outside the circle.

    -b uring the first stage, a tape recorder is normall used.

    "he onl voices taped are those of the student*clients

    when the are speaking in the target language.

    -c "he students initiate the conversation in their native

    language and the knower "ranslates it into the target

    language. "he then repeat in the target language what

    the have heard the knower said.

    -d Students assist each other and the use the teacher when

    there is a need. "he knower provides translation onlwhen someone signals b raising hisGher hand.

    -e Color coded signals are used. (f red is flashed, an error

    has been made. (f  amer, there is a more suitable idiom

    and a better wa. (f green, the utterance is acceptable.

    lue indicates native e#pertise.

    6. Students) developmental stages&

    (a) The :mr'onic 6tage; -胚胎期

      Students are totall dependent on the teacher.

    () The 6el-assertion 6tage;-自我肯定

      "he student*clients begin to show some independence and

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    No veral response is


    tries out the language.

    (c)*The irth 6tage; -誕生期

      "he students speak independentl. "he are most likel to

    resent what the feel unnecessar assistance from the knower.

    -d  The 3eversal 6tage;-逆轉期

    "he are secure to take correction.-e  The *ndependent 6tage;-獨立期

    (nterruptions are infrequent. "he occur for enrichment

    and improvement of stle.

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    The 6ilent

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     Merits 1. Students interact not onl with teachers butalso with each other.

    1. Students are willing and able tocommunicate in the target language andstudents learn the target language in arela#ing atmosphere.

    !. 2as grammatical e#planation helps

    students learn the target language more


     Limits 1. "eachers must know their teachingobectives clearl and make use of theteaching aids effectivel.

    !. Students ma be confused with the

    smbols of the colored wooden rods.

    $. Students waste too much time struggling

    with a concept that would be easil

    clarified b the teachers) direct guide.

    %. (t is difficult for teachers to evaluate

    students) progress in their learning process.

    1. Students don)t concentrate on thelanguage learning because eof themusic.

    !. Students) speech is somewhat

    inaccurate grammaticall and


    $. /ll students need to share a common

    native language.

    %. "eachers must be proficient not onl in

    the target language but also ( students)

    native language.

    3. Not all teachers are skilled in acting,

    singing and choosing the appropriate

    music and not all students can

    appreciate the music.

    Teaching Aids Cuisinere rods phonic charts, transparencies / carpet, sofas, classic music tapes, flowersand pictures

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    =rammar-Translation Method (=-T) 5irect Method (Natural Method)


    16%=I1eading and writing are the maor

    focus little or no sstematicattention is paid to speaking orlistening.

    !. +ocabular is based on the reading

    te#t used, and words are taught

    through bilingual word lists,

    dictionar stud and memori;ation.

    $. "he sentence is the basic unit of

    teaching and language practice.

    %. /ccurac is emphasi;ed.

    3. 7rammar is taught deductivel.

    1. Classroom instruction is conductede#clusivel in the target language.

    !. Enl everda vocabular and sentences are


    $. Eral communication skills are built up in a

    carefull graded progression organi;ed

    around uestion and ans,er [email protected]

     between teachers and students in small*

    intense classes.

    %. New teaching points are introduced orall

     before students see the written form.

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    4. "he student)s native language is the

    medium of instruction.

    3. Concrete vocabular is taught through

    demonstration obects and pictures abstract

    vocabular is taught b association of ideas.

    4. Both speech and listening comprehension

    are taught.

    5. Correct pronunciation and grammar areemphasi;ed grammar is taught inductivel.

    6. Students have to offer the interesting

    materials to draw students) curiosit to learn

    the target language.

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    The 6t0 Cloud Method Micro,ave 5evice



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     pictures are supplement. purposes

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    6ituational 3einorcement Method Aural 5iscrimination Method



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     part of learners. ignored.

    %. (t)s boring with the one*b*one


    3. Students ma feel bored with the

    overemphasis on the grammar teaching.

    Teaching Aids @ictures with e#planator words ?ell structured teaching materials