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History of Health Information Technology in the U.S. Evolution of Public Health Informatics This material Comp5_Unit4 was developed by The University of Alabama Birmingham, funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number 1U24OC000023

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Page 1: Comp5 Unit4 Lecture Slides

History of Health Information Technology in the U.S.

Evolution of Public Health Informatics

This material Comp5_Unit4 was developed by The University of Alabama Birmingham, funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number

1U24OC000023

Page 2: Comp5 Unit4 Lecture Slides

Evolution of Public Health Informatics

Learning Objectives

2

• Discuss how the sub-discipline of public health informatics has evolved over time

• Describe how health IT (HIT) can be used to enhance public health practice

• List potential ethical, social, and political issues associated with the development of HIT applications for public health purposes

Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012

History of Health Information Technology in the U.S. Evolution of Public Health

Informatics

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Outline

• What is Public Health?• What is Public Health Informatics (PHI)

and how did it evolve?– What do PHI professionals do and how did

this change over time?• What were early PHI applications?• What are emerging and future PHI uses?

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Public Health’s Mission

• “Promote Physical and Mental Health and Prevent Disease, Injury, and Disability”

• This is accomplished through 10 “essential public health services” organized under three main headings– Assessment– Policy Development– Assurance

Source: (Public Health Functions Project, 2000.)

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Essential Public Health Services

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1. Monitor health status to identify community health problems

2. Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community

3. Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues

4. Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems

5. Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts

Source: (Public Health Functions Project, 2000)

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Essential Public Health Services

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6. Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety

7. Link people to needed personal health services and assure the provision of healthcare when otherwise unavailable

8. Assure a competent public health and personal healthcare workforce

9. Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services

10. Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems

Source: (Public Health Functions Project, 2000)

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Public Health

• Generally speaking, public health is:– Focused on preventive rather than curative

aspects of health– Concerned with population-level, rather than

individual-level health issues

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What is Public HealthInformatics (PHI)?

• PHI came about when public health officials began leveraging HIT in systematic ways

• PHI Definitions:– “The science of applying information-age technology

to serve the specialized needs of public health” (Friede et al., 1995)

– “The systematic application of information and computer science to public health practice, research, and learning” (Yasnoff et al., 2000)

 

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Public Health Informatics (PHI)

• How is PHI different from other informatics disciplines? – A focus on prevention in populations– Use of a wide range of interventions to

achieve its goals– Constraint by operating in a governmental

context

Source: (Yasnoff et al., 2000)

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PHI Professionals

• Trained in both information technology and public health

• Utilize HIT applications to solve public health problems

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Evolution of Public Health Informatics

• 1995: PHI was first described as a needed distinct discipline (Friede)

• Late 1990s: The PHI “movement” gained momentum in the late 1990’s and early 2000’s

• 2001: Events of September 11 and subsequent anthrax attacks crystallized the need for key PHI applications

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9/11

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Anthrax Attacks

(Photograph by Wally Gobetz)

(Image of letter containing anthrax sent to Senator Tom Daschle)

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Early PHI Applications

• Syndromic surveillance– Definition:

• Concerned with “the continuous monitoring of public-health related information sources and early detection of adverse disease events” (Yan et al., 2008)

– Utilizes information technology, statistical algorithms, data visualization techniques to identify trends warranting public health attention

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Potential Data Sources for Syndromic Surveillance

• Sales of over the counter drugs• Visits to the emergency department for

certain aliments• Absentee data from schools

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Potential Data Sources for Syndromic Surveillance

• Sales of over the counter drugs• Visits to the emergency department for certain

aliments• Absentee data from schools• Physician office visits• Nurse hotline calls• Dead bird reports• Prescription pharmaceuticals • Internet searches (i.e. Google)

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Syndromic Surveillance• 2004 RAND study concludes that the benefits of syndromic surveillance are not clearly established

(Stoto et al., 2004)

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BioSense

• BioSense is a national program intended to support early outbreak detection by conducting near real-time analysis of existing data from healthcare organizations across the country– Ambulatory data– Emergency room diagnostic and procedural

information – Clinical laboratory test orders and results– Over-the-counter drug sales

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Hospitals Participating in BioSense and US Population Density

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Biosense Facilities and US Population Density by County, August 2009. Biosense Background. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.(Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/biosense/subtopic/background/index.html)

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History of BioSense

• Launched in 2003 primarily focused on bioterrorism and related illnesses

• By 2005: VA, DoD facilities, and some hospitals directly reporting to CDC

• By 2006, state health department data• By 2007, anti-infective Rx data, and

laboratory data (LabCorp and Quest)

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BioSense and California Wildfires

• 2007: Massive wildfires in California affect millions• BioSense was able to provide local authorities daily

reports on health activity related to the fires

Source: (CDC at Work)

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BioSense and California Wildfires

• 2007: Massive wildfires in California affect millions• BioSense was able to provide local authorities

daily reports on health activity related to the fires– Large increase in respiratory visits to hospitals– Helped determine impact of wildfire smoke on

patients with chronic illnesses– Lessons learned very valuable

Source: (CDC at Work)

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BioSense and California Wildfires

• 2007: Massive wildfires in California affect millions• BioSense was able to provide local authorities daily

reports on health activity related to the fires– Large increase in respiratory visits to hospitals– Helped determine impact of wildfire smoke on patients

with chronic illnesses– Lessons learned very valuable

• “Real-time” situational awarenessSource: (CDC at Work)

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California Wildfire 2007

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FEMA/Andrea Booher

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FEMA/Andrea Booher

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Photo by NASA’s Earth Observatory

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# of ED visits and Diagnoses for Asthma

Sept 22 – Nov 17, 2007. Data from 6 Hospitals in San Diego, CA

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History of BioSense

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Local and State Efforts• Many local syndromic surveillance systems have

been implemented at the local, county, and state levels

• Many focus on identifying trends indicating a possible bioterrorism attack– Anthrax –Tularemia– Botulism toxins – Brucellosis– Small pox – Hemorrhagic fever– Plague – Viral encephalitides– Q-fever – Staph. enterotoxin-B

Source: (Chen et al., 2010, p. 30.)

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Syndromic Surveillance for Special Events

• Olympic Games• FIFA World Cup• G8 summit• World Series• Super Bowl• Kentucky Derby• H1N1 Pandemic

Source: (Chen et al., 2010, p. 30.)

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Syndromic Surveillance for Special Events

• Olympic Games• FIFA World Cup• G8 summit• World Series• Super Bowl• Kentucky Derby• H1N1 Pandemic

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Photo by Mjohn2101

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Syndromic Surveillance for Special Events

• Olympic Games• FIFA World Cup• G8 summit• World Series• Super Bowl• Kentucky Derby• H1N1 Pandemic

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(Photo by Marek Peters / www.marek-peters.com)

Riots at G8 Summit

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Syndromic Surveillance for Special Events

• Olympic Games• FIFA World Cup• G8 summit• World Series• Super Bowl• Kentucky Derby• H1N1 Pandemic

Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012

33History of Health Information Technology in the U.S. Evolution of Public

Health Informatics

(Photo by Colin McCloskey)

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Syndromic Surveillance for Special Events

• Olympic Games• FIFA World Cup• G8 summit• World Series• Super Bowl• Kentucky Derby• H1N1 Pandemic

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(Photo by Terry Bone)

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Syndromic Surveillance for Special Events

• Olympic Games• FIFA World Cup• G8 summit• World Series• Super Bowl• Kentucky Derby• H1N1 Pandemic

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(Courtesy Kentuckytourism.com)

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Syndromic Surveillance for Special Events

• Olympic Games• FIFA World Cup• G8 summit• World Series• Super Bowl• Kentucky Derby• H1N1 Pandemic

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(Photo by Ms. Christie Vanover (IMCOM))

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Syndromic Surveillance for Special Events

• Olympic Games• FIFA World Cup• G8 summit• World Series• Super Bowl• Kentucky Derby• H1N1 Pandemic

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Swine flu infections and deaths by county June 2009

(Map by Mike Serfas)

Page 38: Comp5 Unit4 Lecture Slides

Future of Syndromic Surveillance

• Take advantage of EHR data• Connect with NHIN• Expand beyond “early detection” and provide

data for:– Situational awareness– Other routine public health practices

• Electronic submission of “reportable” diseases• MRSA occurrence tracking

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Emerging PHI Applications

• Geographic information system (GIS)

• SMS Text messaging

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Geographic Information Systems

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(Courtesy Devon Taylor, Jefferson County, AL Dep't of Health)

Source: (GIS Definition: Wikipedia)

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SMS Text Messaging

• Has been used for public health purposes including:• Behavior change support• Disease prevention

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(Photo by Alton)

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SMS Text Messaging

• Has been used for public health purposes including:• Behavior change support• Disease prevention• Contact Tracing• Health Education

Campaigns• Data Collection

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(Photo by Alton)

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Future PHI Applications

• EHR and HIE enabled PHI applications

• Web 2.0 technologies including social networking systems

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Evolution of Public Health InformaticsSummary

• The use of PHI applications may raise– Ethical issues– Social issues– Political issues

• Ongoing transparency and open debate will likely resolve many concerns and allow PHI to enable more efficient and effective public health practice

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Evolution of Public Health InformaticsReferences

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References• CDC at Work. BioSense is useful tool during California wildfires. CDC [Internet]. Available from:

http://www.cdc.gov/washington/cdcatWork/pdf/wildfires2.pdf• Chen H, Zeng D, Yan P. Infectious disease informatics: syndromic surveillance for public health and bio-defense.

New York: Springer; 2010.• Friede A, et al. Public health informatics: how information-age technology can strengthen public health. Annual

Review of Public Health.1995;16:239-52.• Geographic Information Systems. Wikipedia. [Internet]. Available from:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographic_information_system• Public Health Functions Project [Internet]. [Updated 2000 Nov 28]. Available from:

http://www.health.gov/phfunctions/public.htm• Stoto MA, Matthias S, Mariano LT. Syndromic surveillance: Is it worth the effort? Chance. 2004;17(1):19-24.• Yan P, Chen H, Zeng D. Syndromic surveillance systems. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology.

2008;42:425–95.• Yasnoff WA, O’Carroll PW, Koo D, Linkins RW, Kilbourne EM. Public health informatics: improving and

transforming public health in the information age. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2000 Nov;6(6):67-75.

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Evolution of Public Health Informatics References

Charts1.1 Chart: www.health.gov/phfunctions/public.htm Courtesy:  Public Health Functions Project  1.2 Chart: Ginsberg M, Johnson J et al. Monitoring health effects of wildfires using the BioSense system – San Diego County,

California, October 2007. MMWR 57: 741-747. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5727a2.htm#fig1 Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/about.html Sept 22-

Nov, 2007. ImagesSlide 12: Gobetz, Wally, Twin Towers, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0, Available from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wallyg/159455100/

                  Slide 12: Daschle letter, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0, Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Daschle_letter.jpg Slide 16: newspaper article Available from: http://www18.georgetown.edu/data/people/stotom/publication-25897.pdfSlide 18: map of the US, “Real-time Biosurveillance: Strategy & Approach”, Available from:

http://www.cdc.gov/biosense/subtropic/background.index.html Presentation by Leslie, Lenert, Director, National Center for Public Health Informatics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Slide 23: Labianco, Kevin, burning fires at night, Available from http://www.flickr.com/photos/kevinl8888/1724350154/Slide 24: Booher, Andrea, Firemen Fighting Fires, Available from: http://www.fema.gov/photodata/original/33376.jpg FEMASlide 25: Booher, Andrea, destroyed region, Available from: http://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_images.jsp?

cntn_id=111740&org=NSF FEMA

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Evolution of Public Health Informatics References

ImagesSlide 26: fires from sky, Available from: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8148, NASASlide 28: biosense webpage Available from: https://sites.google.com/site/biosenseredesign/?pli=1 CDC Slide 30: Olympic rings, Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Olympic_Rings.svg   Slide 31: soccer match, CC BY 2.0, Available from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mjohn2101/3093906270/          Slide 32: Peters, Marek, G8 Summit, Available from: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Polizei-G8-Rostock.jpg / www.marek-

peters.com                            Slide 33: McClosky, Colin, World series stadium, CC BY-NC-SA, Available from:

http://www.flickr.com/photos/mccolin/3119313075/     Slide 34: Bone, Terry, Superbowl halftime show (Rolling Stones), CC BY-SA 2.0,  Available from:

http://www.flickr.com/photos/tbone2/98310749/  Slide 35: Kentucky Derby, Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Derby.jpg Courtesy Kentuckytourism.comSlide 36: Vanover, Christie, H1N1, Available from: http://www.army.mil/media/60431Slide 37: Serfas, Mike, deaths by state, CC BY-SA 3.0, Available from:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Swine_flu_infections_and_deaths_by_county_June_2009.svgSlide 40: geo info systems, Source Name: Courtesy Devon Taylor, Jefferson County, AL Dep't of Health                                  Slide 41,42: Photo by Alton, smart phone, Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Texting.jpg  

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