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COM 101 Oral Communication (Public Speaking) Prof. Remy Ashe, M.A. 2 Page 3: Speech Grading Table of ContentsPage 4: Sample Grading for Informative Page 5: Grade Calculator Page 6: Cultural Narrative Assignment Page 7: Cultural Narrative Evaluation Form Page 8 -9: Informative Speaking Guidelines Page 10: Aristotelian Outline Page 11-14: Sample Informative Speech Page 15: Informative 1 Evaluation Form Page 16: Informative 2 Guidelines Page 17: Informative 2 Evaluation Form Page 18: Persuasive Speaking Guidelines Page 19: Aristotelian Persuasive Outline Page 20-23: Sample Persuasive Speech Page 24: Sample Reference Page Page 25: Persuasive Evaluation Form Page 26-27: How To Do Research Page 28: Canons of Rhetoric Page 29: Nine Ways To Cite Your Sources Page 30: Fallacy Worksheet3 Speech Grading A An outstanding speech. Clear goal well adapted to needs and interests of the audience. Excellent content, well-organized, excellent wording and delivery and/or superior accomplishment on the criteria established for that speech. An A speech will have more than the minimum required references. Delivery must be excellent for you to earn an A B A speech approaching the qualities of an "A" speech. A good to very good speech, not necessarily any real weaknesses, but not achieving a standard of excellence in any or enough areas to merit an "A". A good job of meeting most or all established criteria for that speech. Delivery must be very good for you to earn a B. Those who read directly from a text, no matter how well written will not earn an A or B. C A satisfactory speech. Reasonably clear goal, adequate support, apparent organization, but may not be entirely clear to the entire audience; some problems in wording or delivery or both; and/or some deficiencies in meeting the major criteria established for that speech. D An unclear goal and serious deficiencies in some and perhaps all areas of content, organization, wording and delivery; and/or serious deficiencies in meeting major criteria established for that speech. F An unacceptable speech that reveals a lack of preparation and/or poor delivery. Failure to meet major criteria established for that speech. For example, being significantly longer or shorter than the time limit. So how do I grade a speech? You are always graded on content as well as delivery. Fulfilling the basic requirements of the speech will earn you a C. Turning in what I ask is expected and does not automatically earn you an A. If there are no problems with your content, time, number of references, turning in what you are supposed to turn in, etc, but you do not deliver the speech well, you can still earn a C. What kills students grades is the failure to turn in what it expected. First, you will earn your basic speech delivery grade, and then second, I will subtract points based on what was not turned in. *** Standing in front of the class reading your speech (even if everything else is perfect) will earn you no greater than a C. This is public speaking, not public reading!4 Sample grading for informative speaking: Here is a sampling of grades for informative speaking. Student A. This student does everything the assignment asks but stands up and reads the entire speech with very poor eye contact. The reading results in poor eye contact and monotone delivery. This student could end up in the C- to C+ (56-63 points) range. Student B. This student delivers in the same fashion as student A but does not turn in the source material (-10 points) or reference page (-4 points) and goes 45 seconds overtime (-6 points). This student might get a C for delivery but then I would subtract 18 points for not turning in expected material and following time guidelines. So this person would get a 60-20, which is a 40/80 (F). Student C. This student delivers poorly but goes to the writing center for help with content and incorporates more than the minimum of five sources into the speech. This student could end up in the B- or B range. Student D. This student just gets up and talks about the subject of the speech. The delivery is great but none of the expectations of the assignment are fulfilled. This student would get a C, D or F depending Student E. This student does more that is expected on the assignment by incorporating more than the minimum number of references into the text of the speech and takes the speech to the writing center. This student writes the speech well in advance of the delivery date and practices the delivery. The student then delivers it with prolonged eye contact and strong vocal qualities. This student would earn an A. ** These are just samples and may or may not apply to your situation. ** The more you practice, the better your delivery will be!!5 Grade Calculator To calculate your grade on your assignments you need to figure out the percentages. 90% and above is an A; 80-89% is a B; 70-79% is a C; 60- 69% is a D; anything below 60 percent is an F. Divide your score by the maximum allowed to get your percentage. For example if you earned 56/70 on the midterm, you would divide the 56 by the 70. Your percentage on that test would be .8 or 80 percent. Introduction speech 1 /10 Grade on this assignment Cultural Narrative Speech /30 Grade on this assignment Informative Speech /80 Grade on this assignment Persuasive Speech /100 Grade on this assignment Midterm /80 Grade on this assignment Final /80 Grade on this assignment Participation /20 Extra Credit Total Points earned in this class: 400-360 = A 359-320 = B 319-280 = C 279-240 = D Below 240 = F My final grade should be:6 Cultural Narrative Assignment Objective: To practice public speaking and allow the class to get to know whom you are. The assignment: 1. You must tell a 3-4 minute long story (narrative) about/from any culture you belong to. Speeches that go longer or shorter will lose points. The point loss will be one point for each 30-second increment. For example, if you go 4:15 you will lose one point; if you go 4:35 you will lose two points. If you go 2:58 you will lose one point. If you go 2:29, you will lose two points. The points will be taken off your grade after your speaking grade has been determined. 2. The speech is on any culture you belong to. Culture is loosely defined. This could be ethnicity, place you grew up, work, religion, being a student, hobbies, interests, etc. 3. You do not have to hand in a copy of your speech. 4. Rip out the evaluation sheet on the next page packet and hand it to me BEFORE you speak. Fill out the name part, but NOT the culture part. If you do not have the evaluation form, you will not speak and this will cost you one grade. 5. My speaking day is: 6. My speaking order is: 7. Top five cultures: A. B. C. D. E. My number one is:7 Cultural Narrative Evaluation Form Name Time Culture Score Good Areas Areas To be Improved On8 Informative Speaking Guidelines Objective: This is your first formal speech. With this assignment I hope to have you learn the fundamentals of good organization and topic choice and then apply these fundamentals to a public speech. 1. Look for an interesting topic. The topic must be important to the audience, but first and foremost it must be interesting to you. If you do not truly like the topic, your attitude will come across in your speech. You may do any topic as long as there is proper research on it. If you cannot find source material for your topic, then do not do that topic! 2. Sample topics: 3. Do not persuade. You are merely telling us information, not passing judgment, telling us if your topic is good or bad, advocating, or asking us to do something. 4. The speech must be between 5 to 7 minutes. Speeches longer or shorter will lose 3 points for each thirty seconds Be careful: in informative speeches, people tend to make them too long. Time your speech. 5. You must follow the Aristotelian outline. This will be covered in lecture. Your speech will lose points if you make up your own organizational structure. 6. You must have at least six sources in your speech. Sources are where you get your information. These can be magazines, academic journals or newspapers. All the information in the speech must be from a source. You will be citing these sources orally during your speech. You will lose 2 points for each source less than 5 not in the body of your speech. 7. Before you speak you must hand me the Speech Portfolio. The Speech portfolio contains the following four items: A. A full copy of your entire speech with the parts and sources highlighted and/or bolded. Your speech must look like the sample speech I have provided. B. A works cited page C. A copy of all your sources with the material you used in the speeches clearly highlighted. D. The informative evaluation sheet at the end of this portfolio must be turned in with the rest of your portfolio. Do not attach it. Just hand it to me. If you do not turn it in, you will not get to go and you will lose one grade on your speech. ** Put all of your material in a folder. You do not have to bind the information together9 8. If you do not turn in a copy of your speech before you speak, you will lose five points. No reference page will cost you four points and you will lose two points for each source you do not turn in. 9. Again, you will be handing in your speech, evaluation sheet, reference page and source material before you speak. If you say, May I give you the reference material next week? I will say, sure you can!! (But you will still lose points). 10. A speech aid is required. This can be auditory or visual. You will suffer an automatic two-grade loss if you do not have a speech aid. You will lose credit if the speech aid is not effective. Speech aid guidelines: A. Make sure it looks as professional as possible. Professional does not have to be expensive. B. Make sure every bit of it is large enough to see from the back of the room C. Do not have anything written on it. In fact, you should not need words at all if you are going to announce what we are looking at. D. Do not hand anything out to be looked at and/or passed around. If you have a handout, save it for the end of class. E. Make sure you talk to your audience and not your speech aid. F. Do not have multiple pictures on the same board. G. Incorporate the speech aid into the speech; do not just throw it in at the end. Speech aids are supposed to make a point at a specific spot in the speech. H. Make sure everyone in the room can see it or hear it. I. Give the audience enough time to digest what we are looking at or hearing. 11. You will be graded on content and delivery. Assuming you have followed all the requirements of the assignment, you will earn a C if you just stand up and read the speech. Practice it! You will lose more points if you do not hand in what is expected of you or fail to meet the time and source requirements of the assignment. 12. My speaking day is: 13. My speaking position is: 14. Topics I am thinking about:10 Aristotelian Outline I. Introduction A. Attention Gainer (Source cite?) B. Significance/interest (Source cite) C. Thesis D. Preview II. Body A. Pt. 1 Claim + support (Source cites) Transition B. Pt. 2 Claim + support (Source cites) Transition C. Pt. 3 Claim + support (Source cites) III. Conclusion A. Review B. Restate thesis C. Leave us with something to think about and/or tie into attention gainer11 Sample Informative Name Cal Poly, Pomona Date Telomerase ATTENTION GETTER: Sherri Brighton was mentioned in the June, 1995 issue of Newsweek magazine. At age 17, Sherri Brighton appeared to have it all, she was an outstanding athlete in cross country running, and she also excelled in all of her academic studies with a 4.0 GPA finding interest in psychology. To the other kids in her high school she had it all, and she did, unfortunately she also had Leukemia. Mark Weller also had it all. The January 1995, issue of Mens Health reports that at age 30, he was newly married to his high school sweetheart and was a free-lance pilot. He was also very active in his Christian faith. Unfortunately, he was diagnosed with stomach cancer. Mark, as well as his family and friends were shocked and angry. All across America people from every walk of life suffer from the terrible disease of cancer- just like Sherri and Mark. SIGNIFICANCE: But the December 8, 1995, A.M.A Journal of Oncology, reports that "we may be on the threshold for devising a new strategy to battle cancer" because of recent discoveries of a substance called telomerase. THESIS: Telomerase is an enzyme which has been found in malignant cancer tumors and may unlock the secrets of cancer, thus providing us with a cure in the very near future. PREVIEW: To understand telomerase and what it means to cancer research, we must first discover what it is, and then second, find out its relation to cancer. POINT ONE: The understanding of telomerase begins with the understanding what a telomere is, and then how telomeres relate to our topic of telomerase. This understanding begins in the 1930s. The February 6,1996 issue of Scientific American reports that during the 1930's two geneticists discovered that there were caps on the ends of the chromosomes in certain12 organisms. After more research into what these caps were, they found that these caps provided stability for the chromosomes, helped maintain cell integrity and prevented the chromosomes from sticking together. These end caps were called telomeres. The September 1, 1995 issue of the Science Journal, reports that in the 1970s, two researchers, Elizabeth Blackburn and Joseph G. Gall, of Yale University, discovered that telomeres were also present in higher level animals, including human beings. According to the February 1996 Scientific American, during the 1980's, continued research of telomeres uncovered an enzyme called telomerase. As you may recall, an enzyme is something which acts as a catalyst for a chemical reaction. For example the acids in our stomachs act as enzymes to break down the food we eat. Telomerase is an enzyme that helps in the cell replication process. When our cells replicate the new daughter cells tend to become smaller than the original parent cells. This is primarily because the telomeres or the end caps end up getting cut short in the replication process. The telomerase found in the telomeres reacts with the body to fill in the empty space present in the daughter cell to make it as large as its parent. The Biological Chemistry Journal of Fall 1995, reports that in the early 90s, it was found that in humans there is a great deal of telomerase present in the embryonic stage, but the enzyme starts to become less present as we get older. Also, there is evidence that telomeres act as clocks which regulate the telomerase activity in the body. It is believed by researchers that telomeres may actually be the timekeepers which regulate the chemicals that deal with the shelf life of our cells. TRANSITION: Now that you have an understanding of what telomerase is, I will explain how it relates to cancer. POINT TWO: In this point, I will first discuss telomerase in cancerous growth, and second, how it may aid in new anti cancer drugs. The Winter 1995 issue of Genetics reports that in 1989, telomerase was found to be present in cultures of cancerous cells, and sometimes at incredible rates. This has led researchers to speculate the cancer is possibly caused by a haphazard replication process on the part of the13 telomerase. Let me explain. As we get older, telomerase activity slows down, but when there is a problem in the cell, the telomerase can actually be reactivated and aid the spread of the cancer. Cancer can start without telomerase, but the enzyme is needed by the disease for sustained growth. In the September 5, 1995 Issue of the New York Times, it was reported that researchers at the University of Texas Southwestern University Medical Center in Dallas, found that telomerase is active in nearly 85% of 454 primary tumors, including cancers of the breast, brain and lung. It also suggests that the level of telomerase activity may indicate whether patients have a good or bad prognosis. In the book, TELOMERES, published in 1995, Blackburn and her co-author C.W. Greider report that, "the presence of telomerase in various human cancers and it's absence in many normal cells means the enzyme is a good target for anti-cancer drugs. Certain drugs may be able to kill tumor cells by allowing telomeres to shrink and disappear without disrupting the functioning of many normal cells, which is the primary problem with many cancer treatments today- they kill the cancer as well as everything around it. The April 7, 1995 Science Journal reports that Dr. Greg Morin of UC Davis Medical Center has isolated telomerase protein activity in human cells. Dr. Morin stated, "we have been looking for these proteins for 10 years and now that we have them, they will greatly speed up the research process. Scientists are also inspecting how telomerase can be used in gene therapy. Gene therapy is one where diseased cells are extracted from the body and desirable ones are then placed into it. Quite often though, there is a problem with the replication of the new cells. Scientists hope to be able to understand telomerase enough to use the enzyme to help the body produce more of the desirable gene. Granted, scientists are still researching telomerase and telomeres, and a number of unknowns must still be discovered before new drugs can be developed, but according to the March 1995 of Science, there is a great deal of excitement among the scientific community because of telomerase and the incredible potential there may be in unlocking its secrets. This14 informative speech may be the first time you have heard about telomeres and telomerase, but I guarantee that it most certainly will not be the last. REVIEW/ RESTATE THESIS: Today, I introduced you to telomerase. I did this by first examining what it is, and second by explaining how unlocking it relates to cancer. CONCLUSION: Sherri suffered terribly throughout the last stages of the anti-cancer therapy that she had gone through. Sherri has passed away. Mark Weller is living with his cancer, each day awaiting a cure. With more research, hopefully scientists will soon be able to unlock the secrets of telomerase and will help Mark and all other victims of cancer find their much- needed cure.15 Informative Evaluation Form Name Time Total Points Topic Introduction Attention getter Thesis and significance/interest Preview Body Clearly organized points Ideas well supported/use of sources Effective transitions Conclusion Review Restate thesis Closure/overall impact of ending Style/Delivery Usage of notes Appropriate use of language/clarity of language Body and movement Eye contact Vocal Qualities Speech Aid(s) Miscellaneous16 Persuasive Speaking Guidelines Objective: The goal of your speech is to get your audience to do something to make their world better. This must be an audience-centered speech where you identify some sort of problem that may affect us and then give us ways to solve or prevent this problem. This is not an ideological speech. 1. The speech must be between 6-8 minutes. Speeches that go up to thirty seconds over or under will lose five points. Speeches that go between 30 seconds to one minute over or under will lose 10 points. Speeches over one minute over or under will lose 15 points. 2. There must be a minimum of seven sources in your speech. You will lose four points for each source less than seven. There must be a reference page done in the APA format. All cites must be highlighted. You must photocopy and turn in your sources. 3. You will be turning in a portfolio on the day you deliver your speech. The requirements for the portfolio are the same as the informative speech. Dont forget the persuasive evaluation form. Without it you will not speak. You will lose ten points if you do not turn in a reference page. If you do not give me a copy of your speech you will lose ten points. You will lose three points for each source you do not turn in. 4. Visual aids are not required. However, the right visual aid can add tremendous weight to your argument (as well as points). 5. The speech must have personal solution or action steps. Telling the audience that a problem exists is not enough. You need to let us know what we can do to overcome these problems. When you research your topic, look for any possible solution to this problem. You will find many if you research and read the articles carefully. If you do not have solution steps that that audience can implement you will earn an automatic two grade loss. ** Again, you must give the people in our classroom something to do!!!!! 6. You will be graded on your use of ethos, logos and pathos. Use all three in your speech to make your audience subscribe to your topic. Language is very important in persuasive speaking. Pay attention to what you write. You will be graded on your ability to use words to persuade. 7. Content and delivery will be equally important in this speech. Your persuasive outline will be graded on content as well as structure. 9. The key to this speech is to use evidence, structure and delivery well enough to move your audiences threshold to the point of action. 10. Topics to not do: 11. My speaking day is: 12. My speaking order is:17 Aristotelian Persuasive Outline I. Introduction. A. Attention Gainer (Source?) B. Establish Significance (Source). C. Thesis. Make sure to clearly state your claim (thesis) and how it is important. D. Preview II. Body A. Establish ill (2 Sources). Remember you do this both quantitatively and qualitatively. ** What exactly is the problem? Who is it affecting? How many people is it affecting or does it have the potential to affect? Do you have stories about people that have been hurt of affected by this problem? Transition B. Establish Blame (2 Sources). Who or what is responsible for the ill? (Inherency) **Where is this problem coming from? Are the people in the room causing it? Is it coming from corporate or government policy? Transition C. Provide us with a cure. (Solutions steps). (2 Sources). What can we do about this problem? This is the most important part of your speech! You must address the inherency established in point B. ** What exactly can we do to solve or prevent this problem? III. Conclusion A. Review and restate thesis B. Tie back into attention gainer and/or leave us something to think about.18 Sample Persuasion Credit Card Debt ATTENTION GAINER: I am going to need some audience participation. Everyone take a $5, $10, or $20 dollar bill out. How many of you are willing to rip your money up? You probably wouldnt do it and think this is crazy, but we throw money away like this in the name of our car, television, or shoes every month. Let me give you an example. SIGNIFICANCE (SOURCE): Lets say you owe $1000 on your credit card and you have a minimum payment due of $25 and you are being charged 19% interest. How long do you think it would take you to pay it off by just making the minimum payments? The answer is 7 years according to the February 2005 issue of University Wire. And for the first year you would be paying somewhere between $10 - $15 in interest a month. THESIS: Using a credit card is a convenient way to make purchases but if youre not careful you may fall into an uncontrollable debt. Today I am going to introduce you to credit card debt. PREVIEW: During this presentation I am going to cover how credit card debt affects us, who is to blame for credit debt, and the steps to take to avoid it. BODY ILL (2 SOURCES): According to the May 2005 issue of the US Fed News, half of 1st year students own a credit card and almost all second-year students own a credit card. The average college student that owns a credit card has at least 4. Throughout the 1st and 4th year of college the average19 credit card debt more than doubles. The combination of student loans and credit card debt creates an average debt for a graduating senior of $20,000. Why do we have this problem? A credit card tends to give one the impression that you have more money then you actually do which then causes you to spend more. This type of activity can lead to a great dilemma, as you are about to hear. There was a man named Stephen Lewis who over the course of obtaining 19 credit cards was able to run up debts that totaled Pounds $70,000 which is equal to $127,064 dollars. Although the banks never checked to see if he would be able to pay his debts they still offered him more and more money. Once his limits grew he was able to spend more, which caused his payments to increase as well. Why did he have so many credit cards? Well, what he was doing was taking out new cards in order to pay off others. As time when on, he started receiving numerous letters and telephone calls threatening legal action. Unfortunately he didnt see a way out of this out of control debt and decided to end his life as evidenced by the February 2005 issue of Daily Mail. TRANSITION: As you can see from the previous examples many of us own credit cards and they can be risky business; but who is to blame? BLAME (2 SOURCES): First, we must blame ourselves for letting this debt build up. Its so easy to just say charge it and deal with the money later. Its so much more convenient to use a credit card then using our cash. In the April 2005 issue of University Wire, Dr. James Roberts conducted a study about the spending habits of students around the country. He found that students who used credit cards to pay for their books werent able to tell within $30, $40, or even $50 dollars of how much they spent compared to the students who used cash and were able to tell within a few dollars how much they spent for their purchases. Obviously when you20 buy now and worry later you tend to be unaware of the amount of money you have spent until the bill shows up. Another way this debt multiplies is by not paying off the balance each month. Over half of all credit card owners fail to pay off their entire balance each month as noted in the January 2005 issue of the Irish Independent. If you arent able to pay it all off each month then you are probably spending more than you earn. This balance also accumulates if you fail to pay your bill on time or if you go over your limit. The credit card companies are then able to tack on a penalty fee of around $40 to your bill. Next, we can blame the lenders for their lending policies. They actually want to lend money to people who are less likely to pay it back. You see when you pay your minimum payment and carry the balance over to the next month you are actually doing exactly what they want you to do because the credit card companies earn money through the interest charges. They want to lend money to young people and students because of the increased probabilities of a lifetime of debt and the penalty fees that come along as a result, as reported in the March 2005 issue of Daily Mail. TRANSITION: Now that we are aware of our spending habits and the way credit card companies take advantage of us, lets take a look at what we can do to avoid or solve this problem. CURE (2 SOURCES): The best way to avoid this problem is by leaving your cards at home and using your cash or a debit card to make purchases. That way you cant spend what you dont have in the bank. If you must use the credit card use the following strategies to increase your benefits and reduce your costs: As cited in February 2005 issue of The Gannet News Service the best solution is to reduce your expenses or increase your income or do a combination of the21 two. Start by tracking your purchases for about 3 months to figure out where you are doing your frivolous spending and cut down. I found an easy way to do this is to keep a container in your car and put all your receipts in there for 3 months and then do the math. Realize that a late payment can cause interest rates to rise as stated in the April 2005 issue of The Record. Also, the January 2005 issue of Canada NewsWire suggests that you should switch to a lower rate credit card or ask for a lower interest rate if you cant pay off your balance every month. I tested this theory and I was able to obtain a lower interest rate for myself. Moreover, take into account the time it takes to mail your payment so that it isnt counted as late which can cause an incurrence of up to a $40 dollar late fee. I learned my lesson and now I use automatic bill pay through my checking account in order not to be late on my credit card payments. CONCLUSION REVIEW: Today you have learned how credit card debt affects its users, who is at fault, and how to manage credit cards responsibly. RESTATE THESIS: A credit card can be a great tool if you know how to use it wisely however; our ignorance about money management is a money-making asset for the credit card companies. TIE BACK TO ATTENTION GAINER: Back to our original sample debt, if you would only make your minimum payment of $25 for a $1000 loan at 19% interest you would have paid a total of $1540. Thats $540 down the drain. I hope that now you can all think twice before charging something you cant afford. So remember this, when you owe money you make others rich while making yourself poorer. Dont rip up your money22 Sample Reference Page References Credit spiral is far too easy to be sucked into: The cure is painful. (2005, January 17). Irish Independent. Retrieved July 01, 2005, from LexisNexis. DeMarrais, K. (2005, April 17). Take our finance, credit test; Find out what you need to learn. The Record. Retrieved July 01, 2005, from LexisNexis. Hornstrom, K. (2005, April 28). Credit card abuse brings debt, stress. University Wire. Retrieved July 01, 2005, from LexisNexis. Holiday bills weighing you down? Tips for saving money on your credit card. (2005, January 11). Canada NewsWire. Retrieved July 01, 2005, from LexisNexis. Poulter, S. (2005, February 4). The banks growing rich on the credit card misery of millions. Daily Mail. Retrieved July 01, 2005, from LexisNexis. Rayner, G. (2005, March 29). The families who face a lifetime of credit card debts. DailyMail. Retrieved July 01, 2005, from LexisNexis. Rhode, S. (2005, February 3). No magic bullet: Be honest and spend less than you earn. Gannett News Service. Retrieved July 01, 2005, from LexisNexis. Schilling, J. (2005, February 3). Students can drown in debt. University Wire. Retrieved July 01, 2005, from LexisNexis. Sen. Schumer warns: Upstate N.Y. college students graduating with diploma, mountain of credit card debt. (2005, May 18). US Fed News. Retrieved July 01, 2005, from LexisNexis.23 Persuasive Evaluation Form Name Time Total Points Topic Introduction Attention getter Thesis and purpose Preview Body Clearly organized points Ethos Pathos Logos Ideas well supported Effective transitions Conclusion Review Restate thesis Closure/overall impact of ending Solution Steps Style/Delivery Usage of notes Appropriate use of language/clarity of language Body and movement Eye contact Vocal Qualities Miscellaneous24 Research Library databases: LexisNexis 1. Click on Lexis- Nexis. You will then see the database. 2. Just type in your search terms 3. Next, you need to enter your search terms. Be very specific with your terms. A term like terrorism will be too vague. Narrow your terms. The word and is very important. When you use the word and between your search terms it will look for both words separately in the text of articles. It you use two words and put them together without the word and Lexis will look for them together. 4. Hit search 5. A list of sources will then come up. Click on the source. If you like it, you can either print it up or e-mail it to yourself. The buttons for these options are in the right hand corner. However, I recommend you print from the file menu. Also, do not just click on the titles and then e-mail yourself. You will just get the titles. Books: Books are obviously great resources. You can get them from the Valley Library or from any public library. Be careful, though, of getting books that are old or outdated. Being in the library does not guarantee that it is current information. Be aware that I will not allow books to be turned in for your source material. You MUST photocopy the information you used. Internet databases: 1. There are a few ways to find information using web based (google, yahoo,, etc.) search engines: A. You can do a basic search. When you go to you are already set up for a basic search. B. On google you can click on the academic link and this will take you to scholarly material. This is good in that the material is generally academic quality, but you may not get the full text article. C. Yahoo and google both also have news tabs. These allow you to search newspapers, magazines, and online companions to news shows. 2. Go to the website and type in your topic and then hit enter or return on your keyboard. If you find a page you want to use, make sure you find out when the page was last updated. This is usually on the bottom of the home page. If there is no update, make sure to write down the day you did your research.25 3. Print up the page. The printed page should have the web sites URL on the top or bottom. The URL is the address of the web page at the top of your browser. If it does not, make sure to write it down. 4. Web based information in order of acceptability: A. Online version of printed magazines or newspapers. B. Information linked to a known magazine or newspaper such as C. Any information linked to a news station. You will find these on google or yahoo news. D. Domain in preferred order: .edu, .gov, .org, .com, .net. Misc info: 1. You do not have to vary your sources. In other words, if you find all the information you need on LexisNexis, you do not need to then do a google search. However, I do recommend you supplement web searches with a LexisNexis search. 2. Be careful of blogs. Blogs are opinion based web pages and most likely are not factual. 3. Web information that has no clear author or link to a person, organization, university, etc. will not be accepted. 4. Go for the best possible source material available for your topic. A speech that is based solely on random websites may lack credibility and this could affect your grade. 5. Do not trust all web information. Anyone can write anything on the web. Be careful of Wikipedia. 6. Print up or copy everything you use in your speech. You will have to give me that information. If you do not, you will lose points!!!26 Canons of Rhetoric 1. Invention 2. Style What is language? Epistemic function of language Language deflection and reflection Connotation and denotation 3. Disposition Go to the Aristotelian Outline 4. Memory A. impromptu B. memorized C. manuscript D. extemporaneous 5. Delivery27 Nine ways to cite your sources The following information was taken from the August 19, 1996 issue of Time magazine. The article was about a meteor from Mars. Another [electron-microscope image] showed what seemed to be colonies of slug like creatures. As startling as these images were, they constituted just one of several lines of evidence that [NASA] team leader David McKay cites as pointing toward biologic activity in early Mars. Here are nine different ways to cite this source in a speech: 1. According to the Aug. 19, 1996 issue of Time there is evidence that points to biologic activity in early Mars. 2. In the Aug. 1996 issue of Time it was stated that there is evidence that points toward biologic activity in early Mars. 3. There is evidence that points to biologic activity in early Mars, according to the Aug. 19, 1996 issue of Time. 4. There is evidence, according to the Aug. 19, 1996 issue of Time, that points to biologic activity in early Mars. 5. It was reported in the Aug. 1996 issue of Time that there is evidence that points to biologic activity in early Mars. 6. According to the Aug. 19, 1996 issue of Time, NASA team leader David McCay reported that there is evidence pointing toward biologic activity in early Mars. 7. David McCay, leader for the NASA team assigned to study the meteor stated in the Aug. 19, 1996 issue that there is evidence pointing toward biologic activity in early Mars. 8. According to David McCay in the Aug. 19, 1996 issue of Time, there is evidence that points toward biologic activity in early Mars. 9. In the Aug. 19, 1996 issue of Time, it was reported that one electron image showed what appeared to be slug like creatures. David McCay, a NASA team leader, reported that this is one of the several lines of evidence pointing to biologic activity in early Mars. *These are only examples. There are many other ways to cite your sources. Be creative, but also try to be simple and clear. *Throughout your speech, try to cite in different ways. When every cite begins with According to.., your speech could lose some of its impact. *Use thought when you are putting cites into your speech- they can make the difference in your grade.28 Fallacy Worksheet 1. The baseball player was having a hitting slump and decided to stop showering. Three games later he got four hits in the game. He knew it was because of his lack of hygiene. 2. The chairman of the corporation decided that he wanted to change certain policies in his organization because he felt they were outdated. He brought it up to the board but they voted unanimously to keep the policies the same. The chairman reasoned that if all of the board members think the polices are acceptable, then they must not need changing. 3. Jake: Rachel and I both support a ban on stem cell research. Rachel: Whoa, I never said that Jake! Jake: Then you are a horrible person. 4. You are either for the war or for the terrorists. 5. Weve got to stop them from banning violent video games. Once they start banning one type of game, they will never stop. Next thing you know, children will only be allowed to play with wooden blocks! 6. Bob: We should strengthen the borders to prevent illegal immigration. Joe: You must be a racist. 7. The mayor met with the city council to discuss his plan to alleviate traffic. The council asked to him to provide data that his plan would work. Instead of doing that, the mayor told the council that they needed to prove that his plan would not work. 8. Last week I ate at an Indian restaurant and the food upset my stomach. All Indian food must be bad for you. 9. People today are given so many different antibiotics to combat infections that they are increasingly becoming inured to them. All too often the result is the development of resistant strains of diseases which are much more difficult to cure.


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