# Color,Gluons The\$posi1ons\$of\$the\$three\$ quarks\$composing\$the\$proton\$ are\$illustrated\$by\$the\$colored\$

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• Color,  Gluons   Gluons  are  the  exchange  par1cles  which  couple  to  the  color  charge  .  They  carry   simultaneously  color  and  an1color.                 What  is  the  total  number  of  gluons?  According  to  SU3,  3x3  color  combina1ons  form  a  singlet   and  an  octet.  The  octet  states  form  a  basis  from  which  all  other  color  states  can  be   constructed.  The  way  in  which  these  eight  states  are  constructed  from  colors  and  an1colors   is  a  maEer  of  conven1on.  One  possible  choice  is:

RG , RB , GB , GR , BR , BG ,

1 / 2 RR − GG( ), 1 / 6 RR + GG − 2 BB( ) The  color  singlet:     is  invariant  with  respect  of  a  re-­‐defini1on  of  the  color  names  (rota1on  in  color  space).   Therefore,  it  has  no  effect  in  color  space  and  cannot  be  exchanged  between  color  charges.

1/ 3 RR + GG + BB( )

antigreen

green blue

antiblue

red

antired

• emission of a gluon by a quark

splitting of a gluon into a quark-antiquark pair

self-coupling of gluons

g→ g+ g g+ g→ g+ g

g→ q+ qq→ q+ g

hEp://www.par1clezoo.net/shop.html

• hEp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Neutron_QCD_Anima1on.gif

• meson baryon

π + =

uRdR

uBdB

uGdG

!

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Meson  can  exist  in  three  different  color   combina1ons.  The  actual  pion  is  a  mixture  of   these  color  states.  By  exchange  of  gluons,  the   color  combina1on  con1nuously  changes.   r

r _

b _

b

g _

g _

g

g

g _

r

g b _

g _

b

• In  QED  vacuum  polariza1on  effects  are  extremely  weak,  because  the  electron  has  a  small  charge  and  a  non-­‐zero  rest   mass.  On  the  other  hand,  the  QCD  gluons  are  massless,  and  their  strong  interac1on  is  not  damped  by  a  small  parameter.   As  a  result,  the  QCD  vacuum  polariza1on  effect  is  extremely  strong,  and  the  empty  space  is  not  empty  at  all  -­‐  it  must   contain  a  soup  of  spontaneously  appearing,  interac1ng,  and  disappearing  gluons.  Moreover,  in  the  soup  there  also  must   be  pairs  of  virtual  quark-­‐an1quark  pairs  that  are  also  color-­‐charged,  and  emit  and  absorb  more  virtual  gluons.  It  turns  out   that  the  QCD  ground  state  of  an  “empty”  space  is  extremely  complicated.  At  present,  we  do  not  have  any  glimpse  of  a   possibility  to  find  the  vacuum  wave  func1on  analy1cally.  Some  ideas  of  what  happens  are  provided  by  the  QCD  lamce   calcula1ons,  in  which  the  gluon  and  quark  fields  are  discre1zed  on  a  four-­‐dimensional  lamce  of  space-­‐1me  points,  and   the  differen1al  field  equa1ons  are  transformed  into  finite-­‐difference  equa1ons  solvable  on  a  computer.

QCD vacuum

The  typical  four-­‐dimensional  structure   of  gluon-­‐field  configura1ons  averaged   over  in  describing  the  vacuum   proper1es  of  QCD.  The  volume  of  the   box  is  2.4  by  2.4  by  3.6  fm,  big  enough   to  hold  a  couple  of  protons.

• •  Three  quarks  indicated  by  red,  green  and  blue  spheres  (lower  leb)  are  localized  by  the   gluon  field.

•  A  quark-­‐an1quark  pair  created  from  the  gluon  field  is  illustrated  by  the  green-­‐an1green   (magenta)  quark  pair  on  the  right.  These  quark  pairs  give  rise  to  a  meson  cloud  around   the  proton.

• The  posi1ons  of  the  three   quarks  composing  the  proton   are  illustrated  by  the  colored   spheres.  The  surface  plot   illustrates  the  reduc1on  of  the   vacuum  ac1on  density  in  a  plane   passing  through  the  centers  of   the  quarks.  The  vector  field   illustrates  the  gradient  of  this   reduc1on.  The  posi1ons  in  space   where  the  vacuum  ac1on  is   maximally  expelled  from  the   interior  of  the  proton  are  also   illustrated  by  the  tube-­‐like   structures,  exposing  the   presence  of  flux  tubes.  A  key   point  of  interest  is  the  distance   at  which  the  flux-­‐tube  forma1on   occurs.  The  anima1on  indicates   that  the  transi1on  to  flux-­‐tube   forma1on  occurs  when  the   distance  of  the  quarks  from  the   center  of  the  triangle  is  greater   than  0.5  fm.  Again,  the  diameter   of  the  flux  tubes  remains   approximately  constant  as  the   quarks  move  to  large   separa1ons.

• Quarks

Flavor A t tz S C B T Q(e) Mc 2 (GeV)

u (up) 13 1

2 − 1

2 0 0 0 0 + 2

3 0.002− 0.003

d (down) 13 1

2 + 1

2 0 0 0 0 − 1

3 0.004− 0.006

s (strange) 13 0 0 −1 0 0 0 − 1

3 0.08− 0.13

c (charm) 13 0 0 0 1 0 0 + 2

3 1.2−1.3

b (bottom) 13 0 0 0 0 −1 0 − 1

3 4.1− 4.3

t (top) 13 0 0 0 0 0 1 + 2

3 173±1

• The least massive are u- and d-quarks (hence the lightest baryons and mesons are made exclusively of these two quarks)

• Each quark has baryon number A=1/3. • Strange quark carries a quantum number called strangeness S.

Strange particles (such as kaons) carry this quark • Six antiquarks complement the list • Quarks are all fermions; they carry half-integer spins • d- and u-quarks form an isospin doublet • Strong interactions conserve the total number of each type of quarks.

However, quarks can be transformed from one flavor to another through weak interactions (CKM matrix!).

τ + u = d τ − d = u

In  1968,  deep  inelas5c  sca7ering  experiments  at  the  Stanford  Linear  Accelerator  Center  showed  that  the  proton  contained   much  smaller,  point-­‐like  objects  and  was  therefore  not  an  elementary  par1cle

• 1

10

100

1000

10000

100000

1000000

u d s c b t

QCD mass Higgs mass

M as

s (M

eV )

Nucl. Phys. A750, 84 (2005)

HOW does the rest of the proton mass arise? HOW does the rest of the proton spin (magnetic moment,…), arise?

GeV

• Dyson-Schwinger and Lattice QCD

Mass from nothing

It is known that the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking; namely, the generation of mass from nothing, does take place in QCD. It arises primarily because a dense cloud of gluons comes to clothe a low- momentum quark. The vast bulk of the constituent-mass of a light quark is contained in a cloud of gluons, which are dragged along by the quark as it propagates. In this way, a quark that appears to be absolutely massless at high energies acquires a large constituent mass at low energies.

• Chiral symmetry

For massless quarks, QCD Lagrangian preserves helicity. Indeed, since  a  massless   quark  travels  at  the  speed  of  light,  the  handedness  or  chirality  of  the  quark  is   independent  of  any  Lorentz  frame  from  which  the  observa1on  is  made.

LQCD = LQCD (ψL )+LQCD (ψR ) the QCD interaction does not couple the left and right-handed quarks The mass term explicitly breaks the chiral symmetry as: The main origin of the chiral symmetry breaking, however, may be described in terms of the fermion condensate (vacuum condensate of bilinear expressions involving the quarks in the QCD vacuum) formed through nonperturbative action of QCD gluons. Spontaneo

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