Collaborative Leadership

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<p>Collaborative Leadership: How to Succeed in an Interconnected World</p> <p>This page intentionally left blank</p> <p>Collaborative Leadership: How to Succeed in an Interconnected World</p> <p>David Archer Alex Cameron</p> <p>AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO</p> <p>Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier</p> <p>Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elseviers Science &amp; Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verication of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN: 978-0-7506-8705-8 For information on all Butterworth-Heinemann Publications visit our website at Typeset by Charon Tec Ltd., A Macmillan Company. ( Printed and bound in Great Britain 09 10 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1</p> <p>Contents</p> <p>Acknowledgments About the authors Foreword</p> <p>ix xi xiii</p> <p>Chapter 1</p> <p>The Rise of Collaborative WorkingBeyond command and control Everything is mutual The ultimate partner The explosion in business partnerships The problem with partnership The view from the top: partnership is essential Why partnerships have taken off Five types of organisational collaboration Take the rst step</p> <p>11 2 2 3 4 7 8 11 17</p> <p>Chapter 2</p> <p>To Collaborate or Not to Collaborate?The limits of togetherness Transactional, symbiotic or mutual? Points of interdependence: look out for the edge of the platform Work out where you stand Find your place on the spectrum Dont ght shy of complexity Get picky about who you collaborate with and why Tell it like it is Quantifying collaboration: the ten-step guide</p> <p>1919 19 21 23 24 26 28 30 30</p> <p>Chapter 3</p> <p>The Partnership RoadmapKnow where you are Stage 1: selection t for the future Stage 2: transition suspend judgment Stage 3: maintenance keep the machine running Ending: dont burn your bridges The partnership roadmap and collaboration</p> <p>3333 33 38 43 47 50</p> <p>v</p> <p>vi</p> <p>Contents</p> <p>Chapter 4</p> <p>The Three-Legged StoolBuild a stable framework Governance, operations and behaviours the three-legged stool The rst leg: governance Quality of decision-making: get the right people in the room The second leg: operations The third leg: behaviours Three legs good, one leg bad</p> <p>5151 53 55 57 60 64 69</p> <p>Chapter 5</p> <p>The Octagonal Tape MeasureYou get what you measure The rear-view mirror only looks one way Bulldozing with detail A measuring stick to beat you with Measuring with a light touch Go easy on the penalties An octagonal measuring tape What and how to measure Measure the three legs of the stool governance, operations, behaviours Know when to escalate a problem All in good measure</p> <p>7171 72 72 73 74 74 75 76 77 86 87</p> <p>Chapter 6</p> <p>The Grit in the OysterThey just dont understand us Grit can make a pearl Three common reactions: deny, ignore, obliterate When cultures collide Getting to grips with culture Dont forget the sub-cultures Analyzing collaboration styles: the organisational partnering indicator The 16 types of organisation How to use the proles: get under each others skin Shifting the culture Making difference work for you</p> <p>8989 89 90 91 93 96 96 99 108 109 110</p> <p>Chapter 7</p> <p>The Secrets of Successful LeadersStraight from the top The draw of collaboration Make it matter for everyone Dont blame when things go wrong Put yourself in other peoples shoes</p> <p>111111 114 115 116 117</p> <p>Contents</p> <p>vii</p> <p>Patience is a virtue Share the credit, share the load Exercise your inner steel The art of quiet condence The chance to make a mark Leaders make the difference</p> <p>119 119 120 120 121 123</p> <p>Chapter 8</p> <p>Why Some Collaborative Leaders FailPast performance is no guarantee of future success The control freak The idealist The incrementalist The selsh fast-streamer Wising up to what it takes</p> <p>125125 126 129 132 135 138</p> <p>Chapter 9</p> <p>Risk and OpportunityTwo and two can make eight Why partnerships are riskier Expect the unexpected Put the right governance in place Beware the risk register Dont let risk destroy opportunity Find your inner entrepreneur Keep things open Make things feel safe Balance out the asymmetries Cultivate incurable optimism Go for it</p> <p>141141 142 145 145 146 147 148 149 151 152 153 154</p> <p>Chapter 10</p> <p>Conict and the Collaborative LeaderConict comes with the territory Conict can be healthy Equip yourself to handle conict Dont ignore the early signs Dig up the roots of conict Five leadership skills in dealing with conict Put the right governance in place Make conict-handling part of the culture Learn to keep your cool</p> <p>157157 158 159 159 160 163 171 172 173</p> <p>Chapter 11</p> <p>The Future of CollaborationInterconnectedness is changing the world Global threats need joined-up action</p> <p>175175 176</p> <p>viii</p> <p>Contents</p> <p>Isolationism doesnt work The challenges for leaders: innovation, sustainability and resilience Ensuring sustainability: the lesson of ocking Building resilience collaboration in difcult times The collaborative leader 20 years ahead What does this mean to you? An afterword: lagom</p> <p>178 179 181 182 184 185 188</p> <p>Index</p> <p>191</p> <p>Acknowledgments</p> <p>Writing this book has been a collaborative process in itself and we have many people to thank for the part they have played in its creation. First and foremost we want to thank Sandra Greaves, who has worked with us tirelessly over 9 months helping us to research, write and edit large sections of this book. It wouldnt be what it is without her talent and input. Thanks also to our families who have had to put up with all our moods as weve managed the ups and downs of creating this book. In particular, thanks to Joan Cameron who has looked after us so well during our Friday all-day writing marathons. This book is partly a distillation of the experiences weve had in running our consultancy company, Socia. We want to thank everyone who has helped to make Socia such a successful collaborative venture: our chairman, Julie Baddeley, our advisory board (many of whom are quoted in the book), our nonexecutive director, Alison Grant, all of our associates and of course our clients. And nally, we want to thank all of the collaborative leaders whose stories form the lifeblood of the book and who are quoted throughout. Its their success that we want to celebrate and their experience that we continue to learn from.</p> <p>ix</p> <p>This page intentionally left blank</p> <p>About the Authors</p> <p>David Archer and Alex Cameron are founding Directors of Socia Ltd, a consultancy company which advises leaders of large organisations across the public and private sector on how to make partnerships work. Before working as a management consultant David was a lecturer in Electrical &amp; Electronic Systems at the University of Hertfordshire where he also led a British Library funded research program into the future of electronic publishing. Passionate about the ability of people to solve their own collaboration problems he works to help groups create the right environment of governance, working practices and behaviours which will allow creative solutions to emerge. Alex trained as a zoologist and taught in schools and in industry before progressing to a career in management consultancy and executive development. He coaches individual leaders and executive teams. He sees the possibility of avoiding the waste of effort and resources that can often occur in conict situations between individuals and organisations. He cares about the added value that can be achieved through the exploitation of difference. Together they believe that collaboration can deliver business success in the twenty-rst century and that its the actions of leaders that will make this possible.</p> <p>xi</p> <p>This page intentionally left blank</p> <p>Foreword</p> <p>TOWARD A NEW STYLE OF LEADERSHIPThe ideas behind this book were forged at the turn of the millennium in a time of rapid change. In 2001 we were both working as management consultants, advising a ballooning e-business at the height of the dot-com boom. Entranet was a start-up which briey expanded to a company of more than 200 people, and then, just as rapidly, it imploded. It was led by a charismatic individual who espoused a heroic model of leadership. Such was the speed of the collapse that it made newspapers headlines when staff were told of its demise by text message. At the same time, one of us was working at a far-ung outpost of Bernie Ebbers Worldcom empire as its bubble expanded and burst. And like everyone else, we were watching open-mouthed at the scale of the spectacular rise and fall of Ken Lay and Enron. Something was happening to the received wisdom that dened successful leadership. The masters of the universe were failing in spectacular style. Their approach to leadership simply didnt seem to t the business conditions of the new millennium. A different model of leadership was required. Things were also changing in the public sector. Over the same period we were coaching leaders at London Underground as they went through the very painful gestation and birth of the publicprivate partnership that would be tasked with maintaining and rebuilding the worlds largest metro system. Many people had little condence in the success of the new venture, governed as it was by an immensely complicated contract, but at the same time they knew it couldnt fail. Too much depended on it. We knew there were leaders delivering success in complex multi-party collaborations but whose stories werent making it to the press. Indeed wed seen this for ourselves a few years before when wed worked for Premier Oil. This small and nimble oil exploration company had succeeded by forming successful alliances and joint ventures with partners across many regions in Asia. Premiers leaders were a different breed, valuing different skills and attributes from the norm. We wanted to distill the leadership lessons from successful collaborations, wherever they were found, and create a model of collaborative leadership that could be applied to develop capability in many different partnership situations public and private. So we founded a consultancy company, Socia, to take forward these ideas with a declared mission to make partnerships work.xiii</p> <p>xiv</p> <p>Foreword</p> <p>OUR BACKGROUNDAs two individuals with very different skills and education, we came at the problem of collaborative leadership from our own personal perspectives. We have each spent more than 20 years of our working lives as consultants, helping leaders to develop their own ability and condence in this area. Neither of us started out with a career in management consultancy in mind but then in all probability, few people do. By professional background one of us is a zoologist, the other a systems engineer, and we have both spent some time teaching in the past. Its no coincidence that these three disciplines run throughout our work and through this book. We consider organisations as living things that interact with their environment and have to evolve to t their changing circumstances. We use complex systems theory to make sense of partnership behaviour viewing collaborations as non-linear systems where small changes in inputs can produce unexpected outputs, but also where surprising solutions can emerge as you balance risk and opportunity. And underlying all our work is a belief in the power of education and learning to transform individuals and the organisations they lead.</p> <p>THE GROWTH OF PARTNERSHIPSBack in 2001, partnerships were appearing again and again in the news, especially in the context of rebuilding the national infrastructure of roads, railways, schools and hospitals in a series of publicprivate deals. But in a number of high-prole early cases, the reality fell way below expectations. Costs overran, projects were late and it was easy for the taxpayer to equate the word partnership with black hole. In the years since then, weve seen a dramatic rise in the number and range of partnerships and other collaborative arrangements across government and the private sector. The ability of organisations from different backgrounds and cultures to work together has never been more important than it is today. Across the western world we are betting the future of our public services on our ability to make publicprivate partnerships work. At the same time, many international corporations are betting their reputation on their ability to collaborate with a worldwide network of suppliers (some of whom they may never even meet face to face). Biggest of all, we are betting the future of the planet on the ability of nations to work together to tackle global problems such as terrorism, nancial crises and climate change. So the stakes are high.</p> <p>WHAT DOES THIS MEAN FOR LEADERS?At its most basic, collaborative leadership is about delivering results across boundaries. The nature of that boundary is important, whether its a formal contract or an informal agreement between two parties to work together for a</p> <p>Foreword</p> <p>xv</p> <p>common aim. And as a leader, you need to be clear about where the boundary lies and how to use the different capabilities on either side of it to build a positive and efcient relationship. As the poet Robert Frost once put it, Good fences make good neighbours. Getting value from difference is at the heart of the collaborative leaders task. But that is not without its challenges. As in many marriages, its often difference in skills, experience, resources or culture that attracts organisations to work together in the rst place. Then, as time goes by, people start to rail against that very difference and try to remove it wherever it causes frustration in the joint operation. An often-heard criticism is Why cant they b...</p>