Cognition: Thinking, and Language

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Cognition: Thinking, and Language. Chapter 9. Thinking and Mental Images. Thinking (cognition) - mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Cognition: Thinking, and Language

  • Chapter 9

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  • Thinking (cognition) - mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others.Mental images - mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picture-like quality.

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  • Concepts - ideas we group together that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities.Superordinate concept - the most general form of a type of concept, such as animal or fruit.Basic level type - an example of a type of concept around which other similar concepts are organized, such as dog, cat, or pear.Subordinate concept the most specific category of a concept, such as ones pet dog or a pear in ones hand.

    VehicleCarLexus

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  • Formal concepts - concepts that are defined by specific rules or features.A square vs. triangle

    Natural concepts - concepts people form as a result of their experiences in the real world.

    Prototype the best example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept.How we group things togetherWhat is the best prototype for a football player?A platypus is a fuzzy natural concept

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  • Menu

  • Convergent Thinking -there is a right answerTraditional School Question

    Divergent Thinking- to think creatively with as many possible answers you can come up withAllow time for Incubation- walk away from the problem and let you mind work on it without conscious effortMetacognition- think about ones own problem solving strategy

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  • Problem solving - process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways.

    Trial and error (mechanical solution) problem-solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found.

    Insight - sudden perception of a solution to a problem.

    Algorithms - very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems.

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  • Heuristic - an educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem. Also known as a rule of thumb.Meansend analysis - heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference.Math Problem?

    Intuition- allows us to act quickly, unreasoning, based on gut feelings- hard to quantify

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  • Availability Heuristic- estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in MemoryStatistical Reality vs. Dramatic EventsFear of swimming in the ocean vs. crossing the streetWatch a scary movie!

    Representative Heuristic- we judge the likelihood of some event based on how well it matched some picture or expectation we already haveWe assume based upon appearancesTruck Driver vs. Ivy League Psychology Professor

    Anchoring heuristic (bias)- faulty heuristic caused by basing (anchoring) an estimate on a completely unrelated quantityHow much someone weighs.

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  • Functional fixedness - a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions.MacGyver or the Candle Mounting Problem

    Mental set - the tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past.Math ProblemsOpening a door.. Push or pull?

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  • Confirmation bias the tendency to search for evidence that fits ones beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs.If we thought all Italians were in shape, did their own laundry and went tanning watch MTV

    Implicit Assumptions- we assume there are rules limiting what we can doIm not good with numbers therefore I cant do math.

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  • Overconfidence- tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgmentsHow long it takes to study for psych?

    Belief perseverance- tendency to hold on to beliefs in the face of contradictory evidence

    Hindsight bias- Tendency, after learning about an event to believe that one could have predicted the event in advance.

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  • The Dunning-Kruger Effect- people that are bad at something often believe they are good when they are not in reality

    Framing- the way an issue is stated can effect its impact on its audienceEx- 90% of people with this disease recover (yea!) 10% of people with this disease die. (boo!)

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  • We fear our ancestral history.

    We fear what we cannot control.

    We fear what is immediate.

    We fear what is readily available in memory.

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  • Language - a system for combining symbols (spoken, written, or signed) so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others.IIIIIIIIII

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  • Phonemes - the basic units of sound in language. English has about 44 phonemes.

    Morphemes - the smallest units of meaning within a language.Can be words like a or but or s.prefixes or suffixesed at the end of a word means past tense

    How many phonemes in cats?How many morphemes in cats?

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  • Grammar - the system of rules governing the structure and use of a language.

    Syntax - the system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences.

    Semantics - the rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences.Is this the White House or the House White?

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  • 1. Babbling Stage make speech sounds both in and out of native languageFirst able to discriminate speech sounds or phonemes

    2. Holophrastic Stage/one word stage 1st birthdayProductive language begins (speaking meaningful words)Receptive language (comprehension of meaning)Example doggy

    3. Telegraphic Stage/two word stage 2nd birthdayGrammatically correct 2 word sayingContains mostly nouns and verbsFollows rules of syntax ; Example big doggyOvergeneralization/Overregularization extending the application of a rule to items that are excluded from it in the language normYesterday I goed to psychology

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  • Descriptive Grammar- might not follow proper grammar rules but meaning is there (actually used)I aint listening to you!

    Prescriptive Grammar- following proper grammar rules (should be used)I understand what you are saying but I would prefer to do it my way.

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  • Skinner- Operant learningLearning principles explain language development. Association of sights of things with soundsImitation of words and syntax modeled by othersReinforcement- smiles and hugs when the child says something right

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  • Language Acquisition Device- prewired ability to learn the language that is being spoken. (Noam Chomsky)Made possible by universal grammar- all languages have the same building blocksChildren start speaking in nouns- naturally

    Interactionist Model- combination of Skinner and Chomsky; learning and biological predisposition

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  • Critical periods of learning occur in childhood. If a child has not been spoken to or learned sign language by age 7 they lose their ability to master any language.Learning a language as an adult you will always speak with an accentMost easily master language as a childGenie case studyThe Wild Child of Aveyron - Victor

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  • Aphasia- impairment of language usually caused by left hemisphere damage to Brocas or Wernickes area.

    Visual Cortex- receives written words

    Angular Gyrus- transforms (reads) visual info and recodes it into auditory form.

    Motor Cortex- word is pronounced

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  • In processing language, the brain operates by dividing its mental functions (speaking, perceiving, thinking, remembering) into subfunctionsThe brain acts as a unified whole depending on specific neural networks.

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  • Linguistic relativity hypothesis - the theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language.Benjamin Lee WhorfEx.-The Hopi tribe has no past tense in their language, so Whorf says they rarely think of the past.Cognitive universalism theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language.Bilingual Advantage- think and respond better

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  • Studies have been somewhat successful in demonstrating that animals can develop a basic kind of language, including some abstract ideas.Controvers