CODE SWITCHING IN PRIMARY MATHEMATICS .CODE SWITCHING IN PRIMARY MATHEMATICS CLASSROOMS by ... 2.3

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  • CODE SWITCHING IN

    PRIMARY MATHEMATICS CLASSROOMS

    by

    NEO KlAN SEN

    Dissertation Presented to the School of Educational Studies

    Universiti Sains Malaysia In Partial Fulfilment ofthe Requirements

    for the Degree of

    Doctor of Education

    Universiti Sains Malaysia Pulau Pinang

    April2011

    ..

  • Acknowledgements

    First, I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor Associate Professor

    Dr. Lim Chap Sam for inspiring me to investigate this research topic and giving me

    continuous advice, guidance and encouragement as well as invaluable assistance.

    would also like to thank Dr. Leong Lai Mei and Dr. Tan Kok Eng for their helpful

    suggestioHs for improving my research presentations and research dissertation. My

    sincere appreciation also goes to my former superior, Dato' Professor Dr Hussin @

    Mohamad Bin Abd Rahman from the MARA University of Technology, Kelantan

    Branch Campus for his advice, assistance special arrangements of my work schedule to

    allow me to attend the 15 compulsory courses for the Ed D programme at USM Penang

    Campus. I also owe much gratitude to my research subjects and their gate keepers.

    They are school administers, teachers and students from 16 schools in Kelantan. Without

    their cooperation and support, I would not have completed this project. Finally, thank

    you to my family members, especially my wife Madam Heng Buai Chin, our two

    children Neo E-On and Neo On E, and my parents Mr Neo Hai Min and Madam Chua

    Chu Lang, for their love and unwavering support throughout the very long and arduous

    journey of my graduate school studies.

    II

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements

    Table of Contents

    List of Tables

    List of Figures

    Abstrak

    Abstract

    ..

    CHAPTER 1 -- INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background to the Study

    1.2 Statement ofthe Problem

    1.3 Objectives ofthe Study

    1.4 Research Questions

    1.5 Theoretical Framework

    1.6 Conceptual Framework

    1.7 Significance ofthe Study

    1.8 Operational Definitions

    CHAPTER 2 -- REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Types of Code-switching

    2.2.1 Definitions of Code-switching

    2.2.2 Categorization of Code-switching

    2.3 Mother Tongue Use in Bilingual Education

    2.4 The Functional Models of Code-switching

    2.4.1 Ferguson's ( 1959) Notion of Diglossia

    2.4.2 Fishman's ( 1965) Domain Theory

    Ill

    II

    Ill

    VIII

    XI

    xiii

    XV

    2

    5

    6

    6

    14

    17

    19

    21

    22

    22

    24

    29

    32

    32

    "" .).)

  • 2.5

    2.6

    2.7

    2.8

    2.4.3 BJorn and Gumperz's (1972) Signalling and Interpretive Model

    2.4.4 Giles's (1973, 1977) Speech Accommodation Theory (SAT)

    2.4.5 Halliday's (1973, 1975, 2004) Functional Grammar Theory

    2.4.6 Gumperz's (1982) Interactional Sociolinguistic Approach

    2.4.7 Myers-Scotton 's ( 1983, 1993) Markedness Model

    2.4.8 Marasigan 's ( 1983) Six Functions of Illocutionary Acts

    2.4.9 Appel & Muysken 's (1987) Six Functions of Language Use

    2.4.1 0 Summary ofthe Functional Models of Code-switching Before the 1990s

    Functions of Code-switching in Classroom: Studies in the 1990s .

    2.5.1 Meritt et al. 's ( 1992) Study

    35

    38

    40

    45

    48

    50

    52

    56

    56

    58

    2.5.2 Canagarajah's ( 1995) Study 59

    2.5.3 Eldridge's(l996)Study 61

    2.5.4 Summary of the Three Studies on Functions of Code-switching in 62 Classrooms and Implications on This Study

    Functions of the L I and L2 Used in Mathematics Classrooms: A Psycholinguistic Model

    Functions of Code-switching in Mathematics Classrooms

    2.7.1 Studies in the United States

    2.7.2 Studies in Africa

    2.7.3 Studies in Malaysia

    Conclusion

    65

    71

    71

    75

    79

    80

    CHAPTER 3 -- METHODOLOGY

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2

    3.3

    3.4

    3.5

    Research Design

    Participants

    Methods of Data Collection

    3.4.1 Classroom Observation

    3.4.2 Interview

    Procedure of Data Collection

    IV

    83

    83

    84

    87

    87

    88

    89

  • 3.6

    3.7

    3.8

    3.9

    3.8

    3.9

    3.10

    Pilot Study

    Data Analysis

    3.7.1 Verbatim Transcription

    Method of Data Analysis

    91

    93

    94

    95

    3.8.1 Unit of Analysis: Utterance of C-unit 95

    3.8.2 Languages Used in Utterance of C-Unit 99

    3.8.3 Estimation of the Use of L I (students' mother tongue) in I 00 Classroom Discourse

    3.8.4 Types of Code-switching and Counting of Cases I 02

    3.8.5 Communicative Functions of Languages Used I 04

    3.8:6 Instances of Code-switching in the Progression of a Lesson I 08

    Presentation of Research Findings

    3.9.1 Quantitative Analysis

    3.9.2 Qualitative Analysis

    Ethical Issues and Confidentiality

    Reliability and Validity ofthe Study

    Summary

    110

    I 12

    113

    118

    CHAPTER 4 -- DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

    4.1

    4.2

    Introduction

    Languages Used in Primary Mathematics Classrooms

    121

    121

    4.2.1 The Use ofthe L1, L2 and Code Mixing ofthe Ll and L2 in 122 Mathematics Classrooms of a National Primary School (SK)

    4.2.2 The Use of the L I, L2 and Code Mixing of the L I and L2 in 124 Mathematics Classrooms of a Chinese Primary School (SJKC)

    4.3 The Extent to which Teachers and Students Resorted to Code-switching in 127 Teaching and Learning Mathematics

    4.4 Comparison ofthe Use ofthe Ll and L2 in the Mathematics Classrooms 130

    4.4.1 Types of Schools: SK and SJKC

    4.4.2 Types of Classes: The Good Class and the Weak Class

    4.4.3 Location of Schools: Urban and Rural

    v

    131

    132

    134

  • 4.5

    4.6

    4.7

    4.8

    4.9

    4.4.4 Teaching Experiences: Super Senior, Senior and Junior Teachers

    When does code-switching occur during the mathematics lessons?

    Why do mathematics teachers code-switch at that particular point of communication during the progress of a mathematics lesson?

    4.6.1 The Communicative Functions of Code-switching

    Comparison of Language Use in Two Types of Primary Schools when Teachers Performed Six Key Communicative Functions in Teaching

    4.7.1 Function of Discussion

    4.7.2 Function of Description

    4.7.3 Function of Instruction

    4.7.4 Function of Definition

    4.7.5 Function of Representation

    4.7.6 Function ofTranslation

    The Textual, Conversational, Affective and Social Functions of Code-switching

    135

    136

    142

    142

    146

    146

    149

    153

    158

    161

    167

    175

    4.8.1 Textual Metafunction on Topic or Activities Shift 176

    4.8.2 Coping Strategy for Lack of Appropriate Terms in Other Languages 176

    4.8.3 Following the Preceeding Talk to accommodate other People's Speech 177

    4.8.4 Addressee Specification 179

    4.8.5 To Attract Attention 181

    4.8.6 To Express Humour 181

    4.8.7 To Express Dissatisfaction 181

    4.8.8 To Scold 182

    4.8.9 To Give Encouragement 183

    4.8.1 0 To Express Disapproval 183

    4.8.11 To Express Group Solidarity 184

    Summary 184

    CHAPTER 5-- DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Discussion of Findings

    VI

    186

    186

  • 5.3

    5.4

    5.5

    5.6

    5.2.1

    5.2.3

    5.2.4

    What languages are used in mathematics teachers' discourse and to what extent do teachers resort to code-switching?

    When does code-switching occur in mathematics classroom discourse?

    Why do teachers code-switch at that particular point of communication during the progress of a mathematics lesson?

    Implications ofthe Study

    Limitations ofthe Current Study

    Suggestions for Future Research

    Conclusion .

    References

    Appendices

    Vii

    186

    189

    192

    197

    198

    200

    202

    204

    221

  • Table 1.1

    Table 1.2

    Table 2.1

    Table 2.2

    Table 2.3

    Table 3.1

    Table 3.2

    Table 4.1

    Table 4.2

    Table 4.3

    Table 4.4

    Table 4.5

    Table 4.6

    Table 4.7

    Table 4.8

    Table 4.9

    LIST OF TABLES

    Page List of Factors Influencing Language Choice 7

    Three Major Components of Code-switching in Discourse from the 12 Functional Perspective

    Principal Code-switching Patterns 25

    Functions/Patterns/Principal Factors in Selection and Switching 28

    Summary ofTheories/Models for Functions of Code-switching in 55 Various Social Contexts other than School Settings

    The frequency distribution of subjects based on the types of class 86 and the class level

    Sample of assigning utterances the value of types of language use I 07 and communicative functions based on observation of Teacher T9

    Language Uses of eight classes at SK 123

    Language Uses of eight classes at SJKC 125

    Cases of intersentential and intrasentential code-switching by 128 teachers and students in eight mathematics classrooms at SK

    Cases of intersentential and intrasentential code-switching resorted 129 by teachers and students in eight mathematics classroom