Cluster 9 Social Cognitive and Constructivist Views of Learning Anita Woolfolks Educational Psychology Social Learning Social Cognitive Theories Constructivist.

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  • Cluster 9Social Cognitive and Constructivist Views of Learning

    Anita Woolfolks Educational PsychologySocial Learning Social Cognitive TheoriesConstructivist and Situated Learning

  • Parents, Peers and TeachersSteinbergs Study of 20,000 adolescents40% are just going through the motions of learningParenting styles have an influence on students valuesTeacher support is also important

    Key Terms:Constructivism- emphasis that individuals learn best when they are constructing knowledge and understandingSocial Learning- learning from observing the behavior of others and the outcomes of those behaviorsObservational Learning- learning by observation and imitation of othersVicarious Reinforcement- reinforcement that occurs through the observation of another being reinforced for that behavior

  • Social Learning Theory/Social Cognitive TheoryAlbert Bandura-----------Bandura:aggression is learned through behavior modelingoriginated social learning theory (SLT) that has now developed as Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)Originally SLT was based on behavioral principles of reinforcement and punishment, social behaviors. More recently, he added cognitive factors such as beliefs an self-perceptions, self-efficacy and expectations to his theory, referred to as SCT.individuals do not actually inherit violent tendencies, but rather model themargued that individuals, especially children, learn aggressive responses from observing others either personally or through the media and environmentBobo doll experiments

  • Social Cognitive Theory and Learning Enactive Learning and Vicarious LearningObservation/ModelingAttention-Retention-ReproductionMotivation and reinforcement-Vicarious reinforcementSee table 24.1, p. 308Factors that Affect Observational LearningDevelopmental level of learner -Status and prestige of the modelSimilarity of models -Vicarious consequencesOutcome expectations -Value of the goal Self-efficacyObservational Learning and TeachingDirecting attention-Fine-tune already-learned behaviorsStrengthening/weakening inhibitions -ModelingArousing emotionsSee Guidelines, p. 310-Using Observational LearningReciprocal DeterminismInternal and External forces are important components of social cognitive theoryReciprocal InfluencesSocial InfluencesAchievement OutcomesSelf-influences

  • Constructivism and Situated LearningHow is knowledge constructed?realities and truths of the external world direct knowledge construction-Information processingInternal processes direct knowledge construction-Piagetboth internal and external processes direct constructivism-VygotskySee Table 25.1, p. 317 and Table 25.2-, p. 321-4 Views of Learning

    Situated Knowledgenotion that much of what is learned is specific to the situationadopting norms, behaviors, skills, beliefs, language and attitudes of a particular community (such as a work environment community)

    Common Elements of Constructivist Perspectives-Implications for Teacherscomplex learning environments and authentic taskssocial negotiation to encourage development of higher mental processes through social interaction.multiple representations of contentmultiple analogies, examples, metaphorsunderstanding the knowledge construction process-make students aware of the influences that shape their thinkingstudent ownership of learning

  • Applications of Constructivist and Situated Learning PerspectiveInquiry Learning-many formsteacher presents puzzling event, question or problemformulate hypothesis to explain the event or solve problemgenerate and collect data to test hypothesesdraw conclusionsreflect on original problem and thinking processes needed to solve itProblem-Based Learningreal meaningful problemmay not necessarily be a right answeruse current events, social issuesAnchored instructionOrient students to the problemOrganize students for study/researchtasksassist independent and group investigationresearch techniques and resources, experimentsdevelop and present in form of artifacts, reports, videos, modelsanalyze and evaluate problem-solving process

  • Dialogue and Instructional Conversationsprovide necessary opportunities for student to operate within their zones of proximal development (mastery of a task can take place with appropriate guidance/help/support)reduction of dominance of teacher talk in the classroomSee Table 26.2-Elements of the Instructional Conversation, p. 329Cognitive Apprenticeshipsstudents observe and expert model (teacher) of the performancestudents get external support through coaching or tutoringconceptual scaffolding is provided and gradually removed as the students become more competentstudents continually articulate their knowledgestudents reflect on their progress through comparison with the expert and with their own earlier effortsstudents are required to explore new ways to apply what they have learned, for example, reciprocal teaching (a modeling based method used to teach reading comprehension strategies)math example-What are you doing? Why are you doing it? How will success in your strategy help you find a solution to the problem?Examples of Critical Thinking Skills- see Table 26.3, p. 333


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