Transformation of EnergyEnergy is the ability to do work.Chemical Energy and ATPCells and EnergyThermodynamics is the study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe.Section 4.1
Laws of ThermodynamicsFirst lawenergy can be converted from one form to another, but it cannot be created nor destroyed.Cells and EnergySecond lawenergy cannot be converted without the loss of usable energy.Section 4.1
Autotrophs and HeterotrophsAutotrophs are organisms that make their own food.Cells and EnergyHeterotrophs are organisms that need to ingest food to obtain energy.Section 4.1
MetabolismAll of the chemical reactions in a cellPhotosynthesisCells and EnergyPhotosynthesislight energy from the Sun is converted to chemical energy for use by the cellCellular respirationorganic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cellSection 4.2
Overview of Cellular RespirationATP releases energy when the bond between the second and third phosphate groups is broken, forming a molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free phosphate group.How Organisms Obtain EnergyCells and EnergySection 4.4ATP
Overview of PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis occurs in two phases.Cells and EnergyLight-dependent reactions Light-independent reactions PhotosynthesisSection 4.3
Phase One: Light ReactionsThe absorption of light is the first step in photosynthesis.Cells and EnergyChloroplasts capture light energy.PhotosynthesisSection 4.3
Electron TransportLight energy excites electrons in photosystem II and also causes a water molecule to split, releasing an electron into the electron transport system, H+ into the thylakoid space, and O2 as a waste product.Cells and EnergyPhotosynthesisSection 4.3
The excited electrons move from photosystem II to an electron-acceptor molecule in the thylakoid membrane.The electron-acceptor molecule transfers the electrons along a series of electron-carriers to photosystem I.Cells and EnergyPhotosynthesisSection 4.3
Cells and EnergyPhotosynthesisPhotosystem I transfers the electrons to a protein called ferrodoxin.Ferrodoxin transfers the electrons to the electron carrier NADP+, forming the energy-storing molecule NADPH.Section 4.3
Cells and EnergyPhotosynthesisPhase Two: The Calvin CycleIn the second phase of photosynthesis, called the Calvin cycle, energy is stored in organic molecules such as glucose.Section 4.3
Cells and EnergyPhotosynthesisSix CO2 molecules combine with six 5-carbon compounds to form twelve 3-carbon molecules called 3-PGA.The chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH is transferred to the 3-PGA molecules to form high-energy molecules called G3P.Section 4.3
Cells and EnergyPhotosynthesisTwo G3P molecules leave the cycle to be used for the production of glucose and other organic compounds.An enzyme called rubisco converts the remaining ten G3P molecules into 5-carbon molecules called RuBP.These molecules combine with new carbon dioxide molecules to continue the cycle.Section 4.3
Overview of Cellular RespirationOrganisms obtain energy in a process called cellular respiration.Cellular RespirationCells and EnergyThe equation for cellular respiration is the opposite of the equation for photosynthesis.Section 4.4
Cellular RespirationCells and EnergyCellular respiration occurs in two main parts.Glycolysis Aerobic respiration Section 4.5
GlycolysisGlucose is broken down in the cytoplasm through the process of glycolysis.Cellular RespirationCells and EnergyTwo molecules of ATP and two molecules of NADH are formed for each molecule of glucose that is broken down.Section 4.5
Krebs CycleGlycolysis has a net result of two ATP and two pyruvate. Cellular RespirationCells and EnergyMost of the energy from the glucose is still contained in the pyruvate.The series of reactions in which pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide is called the Krebs cycle.Section 4.5
Cellular RespirationCells and EnergyThe net yield from the Krebs cycle is six CO2 molecules, two ATP, eight NADH, and two FADH2.Section 4.5
Cellular RespirationCells and EnergyElectron TransportFinal step in the breakdown of glucosePoint at which ATP is produced Produces 24 ATPSection 4.5
Cellular RespirationCells and EnergyAnaerobic RespirationThe anaerobic pathway that follows glycolysisTwo main typesLactic acid fermentation Alcohol fermentationSection 4.5, 4.6
ABCDCDQ 1 Energy cannot be converted or destroyed. Energy can be converted and destroyed. Energy can be converted but not destroyed. Energy can be destroyed but not converted.Which statement describes the law of conservation of energy? Cellular EnergyChapter Diagnostic QuestionsChapter
ABCDCDQ 2Cellular EnergyChapter Diagnostic QuestionsChapter photosynthesis cellular respiration homeostasis fermentationIn which metabolic process are molecules broken down to produce carbon dioxide and water?
ABCDCDQ 3Cellular EnergyChapter Diagnostic QuestionsChapter NADPH ATP chloroplast glucoseAt the end of the Calvin cycle, where is energy stored?
ABFQ 1Cellular EnergyChapterWhich law of thermodynamics explains why the ladybug receives the least amount of usable energy? the first law of thermodynamics the second law of thermodynamicsSection 1 Formative Questions
ABFQ 2Cellular EnergyChapterSection 1 Formative QuestionsAll of the energy from the food you eat comes from the sun. true false
ABCDFQ 3Cellular EnergyChapterSection 1 Formative QuestionsWhy is cellular respiration a catabolic pathway?Energy is used to form glucose and oxygen.Energy is converted from water to carbon dioxide.Energy that is lost is converted to thermal energy.Energy is released by the breakdown of molecules.
ABCDFQ 4Cellular EnergyChapterSection 1 Formative QuestionsIt captures light energy from the sun.It is produced in anabolic pathways.It stores and releases chemical energy.It converts mechanical energy to thermal energy.Why is adenosine triphosphate (ATP) such an important biological molecule?
ABCDFQ 5Cellular EnergyChapter chloroplasts Golgi apparatus mitochondria vacuolesWhere in the plant cell does photosynthesis take place?Section 2 Formative Questions
ABCFQ 6Cellular EnergyChapterSection 2 Formative Questions 400-500 nm 500-600 nm 600-700 nmWhich range of wavelengths is reflected by chlorophylls a and b?
ABCDFQ 7Cellular EnergyChapterSection 2 Formative Questions absorption chemiosmosis electron transport C2 pathwayWhich mechanism of photosynthesis uses the movement of hydrogen ions (H+) across a concentration gradient to synthesize ATP?
ABCDFQ 8Cellular EnergyChapterSection 2 Formative Questions They accelerate photosynthesis. They release more oxygen. They help the plant conserve water. They reduce the requirement for ATP.How are the C4 pathway and the CAM pathway an adaptive strategy for some plants?
ABCDFQ 9Cellular EnergyChapter to make ATP to process H2O to store glucose to deliver oxygenWhat is the overall purpose of cellular respiration?Section 3 Formative Questions
ABCDFQ 10Cellular EnergyChapterWhich represents the general sequence of cellular respiration?TCA cycle chemiosmosis glycolysisglycolysis Krebs cycle electron transportelectron absorption catalysis phosphorylationaerobic pathway anaerobic pathway fermentationSection 3 Formative Questions
ABCFQ 11Cellular EnergyChapter glycolysis Krebs cycle electron transportWhich stage of cellular respiration is the anaerobic process?Section 3 Formative Questions
ABCDFQ 12Cellular EnergyChapter CoA CO2 FADH2 NADHWhich molecule generated by the Krebs cycle is a waste product?Section 3 Formative Questions
ABCDCAQ 1Cellular EnergyChapterLook at the following figure. Which part of the chloroplast is a sac-like membrane arranged in stacks? grana stroma thylakoids Golgi apparatusChapter Assessment Questions
ABCDCAQ 2Cellular EnergyChapterChapter Assessment QuestionsDuring the Krebs cycle, pyruvate is broken down into what compound? H2O O2 CO CO2
ABCDCAQ 3Cellular EnergyChapterChapter Assessment QuestionsLook at the following figure. Which molecule is released when ATP becomes ADP? phosphate group water molecule ribose sugar energy cells
ABSTP 1Cellular EnergyChapterWhich metabolic process is photosynthesis?Standardized Test Practice
ABCDSTP 2Cellular EnergyChapterStandardized Test PracticeAt the beginning of photosynthesis, which molecule is split to produce oxygen (O2) as a waste product? CO2 H2O C6H12O6 3-PGA
ABCDSTP 3Cellular EnergyChapterStandardized Test PracticeWhich molecule helps provide the energy that drives this cycle? 3-PGA CO2 NADPH rubisco
ABCDSTP 4Cellular EnergyChapterStandardized Test PracticeWhich product of the Calvin cycle is used for the production of glucose and other organic compounds? ADP CO2 G3P NADP+
ABCDSTP 5Cellular EnergyChapterStandardized Test PracticeWhat is the final step of cellular respiration? O2 and H+ form H2O. Electrons and H2O generate ATP. C6H12O6 is broken down into CO2. NADH and FADH2 gain electrons.
ABCDSTP 6Cellular EnergyChapterStandardized Test PracticeWhat prevents pyruvate from entering the Krebs cycle and instead results in this pathway? a buildup of CO2 a lack of oxygen an excess of glucose an increased demand for ATP
ABCDSTP 7Cellular EnergyChapterStandardized Test PracticeWhich is not a process that occurs in both cellular respiration and glycolysis? chemiosmosis electron transport glycolysis production of G3P