Cleaner Production and Industrial Ecology .Kalundborg, the world’s industrial ecology reference

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Cleaner Production and Industrial Ecology;Dynamic Aspects of the Introduction and Dissemination of New Concepts in Industrial

Practice

Schonere Productie en Industrile Ecologie; dynamische aspecten in de introductie en de verspreiding van nieuwe concepten in de industrile praktijk

ISBN 90-5972-083-0

Eburon Academic Publishers P.O. Box 2867 2601 CW Delft The Netherlands tel.: +31 (0) 15 - 2131484 / fax: +31 (0) 15 - 2146888 info@eburon.nl / www.eburon.nl

Cover design: Studio Hermkens, Amsterdam English Editing: E. Roxanne Powell Layout: Maarten Baas

2005 Leo Baas. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing from the proprietor.

Cleaner Production and Industrial Ecology;

Dynamic Aspects of the Introduction and Dissemination of New Concepts

in Industrial Practice

Schonere Productie en Industrile Ecologie; dynamische aspecten van de introductie en de verspreiding van nieuwe concepten in de industrile praktijk

Thesis

to obtain the degree of Doctor from the

Erasmus University Rotterdam

by command of the

rector magnificus

Prof.dr. S.W.J. Lamberts

and according to the decision of the Doctorate Board

The public defence shall be held on

Friday October 7th

, 2005 at 13.30 hrs

by

Leenard Willem Baas

born in Schiedam

Doctoral committee

Promotor: Prof.dr. W.A. Hafkamp

Other members: Prof.dr. D. Huisingh Dr.ir. K.F. Mulder Prof.dr. G.A.J.M. Zwetsloot

Copromotor: Dr. F.A. Boons

V

Contents

Executive Summary.......................................................................................................... 1

Samenvatting ........................................................................................................... 6

Preface ......................................................................................................... 13

PART I The Design of the Thesis, Theory Reflection and Dissemination Context

of New Concepts

1 Prevention in Action; Evidence in Examination............................................. 17

1.1. Differing perceptions of environmental problems............................................... 19 1.2. Introduction to the concepts and research questions ........................................... 24 1.3. The design of the dissertation in more detail....................................................... 28 1.4. The relevance of this thesis.................................................................................. 30 1.5. The main features of this thesis ........................................................................... 31

2 The Prevention Concept and Theoretical Considerations ............................. 33

2.1. The research field of the concepts ....................................................................... 33 2.2. Organisational change and learning processes .................................................... 36 2.3. Paradigm shifts: love it or leave it ....................................................................... 43 2.4. Theoretical focus: social theory and practical paradigms.................................... 48 2.4.1. Perception ......................................................................................................... 48 2.4.2. Information processing ........................................................................................ 50 2.4.3. Social dilemmas................................................................................................... 52 2.4.4. Decision-making.................................................................................................. 53 2.4.5. Institutional framework ....................................................................................... 54 2.4.6. Perception of stakeholders and translation .......................................................... 56 2.5. The touchstones in this thesis analysis ................................................................ 58 2.6. Research methodology......................................................................................... 61 2.6.1. Analytical framework .......................................................................................... 63 2.6.2. Research methods ................................................................................................ 65 2.6.3. Research on sustainability: a few considerations ................................................ 68 2.7. Considerations about the research model and practice........................................ 69

3 The Context of the New Concepts and the Research on their

Dissemination .................................................................................................... 71

3.1. Environmental awareness and public policy development.................................. 71 3.2. The rise of environmental management systems................................................. 76 3.3. The relationships between technology and the environment............................... 77 3.4. The international context of emerging cleaner production dissemination

policy ......................................................................................................... 80 3.5. The emergence of industrial ecology................................................................... 83 3.5.1. Cleaner production, integrative chain management and industrial ecology........ 83

VI

3.5.2. Industrial ecology as a conceptual model............................................................ 85 3.5.3. Industrial ecology as an analytical method.......................................................... 86 3.5.4. Industrial ecology as a management strategy ...................................................... 87 3.5.5. Industrial ecology as a branch of systems science and systems thinking ......... 87 3.5.6. Criticism of the industrial ecology concept ......................................................... 89 3.5.7. Industrial ecology as a regional approach ........................................................... 92 3.5.8. Expected trends in industrial ecology.................................................................. 93 3.6. From concept description to dissemination and testing....................................... 94 3.7. Recapitulation of the development of environmental policy as the context for

the dissemination of the cleaner production concepts ........................................ 96

PART II Cleaner Production Projects and Analysis

4 The Period 1985 - 2000: Cleaner Technology and Cleaner Production

Developments in the Netherlands and Internationally.................................. 99

4.1. From pollution control technology to cleaner production ................................. 100 4.2. The dissemination context of the first cleaner production projects in The

Netherlands ....................................................................................................... 103 4.3. Developments in cleaner production ................................................................. 106 4.3.1. Fact-finding phase of the cleaner production approach in the Netherlands ...... 107 4.3.2. The design of a structured cleaner production approach ................................... 112 4.3.3. The dissemination phase of cleaner production projects................................... 114 4.3.4. International phase in cleaner production approach .......................................... 119 4.3.5. Institutionalisation phase of cleaner production ................................................ 122 4.4. International dissemination of cleaner production projects............................... 126 4.4.1. The UNIDO-UNEP National Cleaner Production Centres Programme............ 127 4.4.2. United States Agency for International Development....................................... 133 4.4.3. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)....... 133 4.4.4. International industry and business organisations ............................................. 134 4.4.5. Other international organisations....................................................................... 135 4.5. Professional organisations ................................................................................. 136 4.5.1. Pollution prevention/cleaner production Roundtables....................................... 137 4.5.2. Further `greening organisations........................................................................ 140 4.6. The characteristics of the international dissemination process.......................... 142 4.7. Recapitulation and conclusions concerning the cleaner production

dissemination process ....................................................................................... 145 4.8. The state-of-the-art at the beginning of the 21st century................................... 148

5 Analysis of the Development of Cleaner Production Projects..................... 151

5.1. Developments within cleaner production research: beyond projects ................ 151 5.1.1. The positions of different actors at the beginning of cleaner production

dissemination research...................................................................................... 154 5.1.2. Which research methods were used?................................................................. 155 5.1.3. Decision of a company to participate in