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CleanerProductionandIndustrialEcology:Two Pillars for a Sustainable IndustryTwoPillarsforaSustainableIndustry

3 d i l k h3rd InternationalWorkshopAdvances in Cleaner ProductionAdvancesinCleanerProduction

19May2011

LeoBaasUniversity of LinkpingUniversityofLinkping,

EnvironmentalTechnology&Management

From Two Natural Systems to....:

..Onenaturalsymbiosis system:CanIndustrialEcologyMimick Nature?

2

3

Cleaner productionCleanerproduction

Pollution control Waste management Cleaner production

Energyrecovery

On-siterecycling

SourcereductionUse/reuse

Disposal TreatmentOff-site

recycling

Energy & raw material

conservationReclamation Resourcerecovery

Shifting emphasis to sustainable development

4

Cleaner productionCleanerproduction

A systems approach

i h ffi i Improving the efficiency of resource utilisation

Minimising creation of waste d ll iand pollution

Cost reductions and Cost reductions and marketing advantage

5

CleanerproductionasInnovationprocess

Cleaner Production definition :Cleaner Production is an INNOVATION processin which Quality, Pollution prevention, CleanTechnology and Organisational change are tuned to Improvement of Process, Product, Service, p f , , ,Environmental Quality and Organisational results

Journal of Cleaner Production (since 1992)Regional Roundtables on Cleaner Production (since 1994)

: Sustainable Consumption & Production

6

NCPC Network world-wide

Joint UNIDO-UNEP Cleaner Production Programme5

7

Joint UNIDO-UNEP Cleaner Production Programme

8

SENAI document 2008

9

SENAI 2008

10

SENAI, 2008

11

Somefindingsincleanerproductiondi i i jdisseminationprojectsa) The you cannot find when you do not knowa) The you cannot find when you do not know

where to look theorem: engineers who are reasonably - but not intimately -g y yfamiliar with the process may conclude that there are no cleaner production opportunities because they cannot see them;they cannot see them;

b) When an organisation does not internalise cleanerb) When an organisation does not internalise cleaner production, the ability for changing a failure into a cleaner production opportunity cannot be seen.p pp y

12

Transitionprocesses:from Idea to New RoutinesfromIdeatoNewRoutines

Idea Diffusion Outcome

CONCEPT INNOVATIONCULTURE STRUCTURE / PROCESS

CleanerP d ti

SocietyCompanies

SustainableManagement

Existing Routines

Production

IndustrialEcology

Government

Experts

Citizens

InternalisedConcepts

Transition

EcologyNewRoutines

New Practices

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IndustrialEcologydefinition

Industrial ecology is described as:Industrial ecology is described as: An integrated system, in which the consumption of energy and materials is optimised and the effluents of one process p ff f pserve as the raw material(s) or energy for another processanother process

(Frosch & Gallopoulos, Scientific American:1989)

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Industrial Ecology definition IIIndustrialEcologydefinitionII

Industrial ecology is the science that studies the metabolism of society,studies the metabolism of society, involving the structure and evolution of i d t i l d ti iti dindustrial and consumer activities and their effects on the environment, and ways to steer the metabolism into a sustainable directionsustainable direction

(M.Sc. Industrial Ecology, 2004)

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( gy, )

CloselinkstootherConceptsI:Circular EconomyCircularEconomy

Circular economy which originates from the Circular economy which originates from the industrial ecology paradigm, building on the notion of loop-closing emphasized in German and Swedish environmental policy, and has been pursued by Chinas environmental policy makers as a potential strategy to solve existing environmental problemsstrategy to solve existing environmental problems

(In China the central government formally accepted(In China, the central government formally accepted in 2002 the concept, formal promotion law in 2008)

16

CloselinkstootherConceptsII:CradletoCradle

The concept of Eco-effectiveness proposes the transformation of products and their associated

t i l fl h th t th f timaterial flows such that they form a supportive relationship with ecological systems and future economic growtheconomic growth

The goal is to generate cradle-to-cradlemetabolisms that enable materials to maintainmetabolisms that enable materials to maintain their status as resources and accumulate intelligence over time (up-cycling)over time (up cycling)

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McDonough & Braungart, 2002

IndustrialSymbiosis

Industrial Symbiosis is seen as a h b t i l tprocess whereby materials, water,

energy in the techno-sphere and informational, organizational and management flows at themanagement flows at the institutional level between and among companies are investigatedamong companies are investigated with the objective of developing and i i ti li kimproving co-operative links between/among them

18

IndustrialEcology:InterconnectednessofPhysical&SocialSystems

Ph i l S t :Physical Systems:Technology, Material and Energy Flows

interconnectednessinterconnectedness

Social Systems: Individuals, Organisations, Culture,Individuals, Organisations, Culture, Values, Institutions

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EmbeddednessHuman activities are embedded:

h h d b h i hi h hThey are shaped by the context in which they occur Cognitive embeddedness:* The way in which individuals and organisations

collect and use information (making sense)collect and use information (making sense)* A rational actor model, however, individuals and

i i h li i d i i forganisations have limited capacities for information processing and decision-making

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ExampleofSeparateProduction

Product Product

Facility Facility Rawmaterial

1 2FuelWater

Water WaterBy-product

Waste heat

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product

ExampleofExchangesp g

Product Product

Facility Facility

Rawmaterial

y1

y2

Fuel

CleaningCleaning

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Development strategies The planned project approach: management by

industry, government or special organization: by-industry, government or special organization: byproducts sharing and links of utilities

The uncovering resource links approach: The uncovering resource links approach: detection of by-product synergy as illustration for further IS developmentfurther IS development

The anchor tenant approach: links around a big company

The co-siting approach: restructuring an industrial site with new companies and IS links

The Synthesis approach: learning from the

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approaches above

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WhyEcoIndustrialParks?

EIPs are being promoted as one of the means of achieving sustainable development:sustainable development:

Community Partnerships leading to better economic

development &

Higher resource & economic efficiency

development & quality of life

y

Ecological site planning & green

Expanded use of renewable energy

p g gbuildings

25

25

gy

IndustrialSymbiosisapproachesy pp

Design Development

Top - Down: Bottom - Up:D t li d

g p

Centralized Coordination mechanisms

Decentralized Complex

Coordination

Eco-Industrial

Parksmechanisms mechanismsParks

26

Example:Kalundborg IndustrialSymbiosis

25 connections of material and energy flows in 20092009

Main actors:a coal fired power plantan oil refineryya medical/biochemistry industry

a g ps m board man fact rera gypsum board manufacturera soil cleaning companythe municipality of Kalundborg

27

INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS: STATUS 2007INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS: STATUS 2007

SoilremLake The Municipality19 Sludge1998

Waste water treatment SoilremLake

Tissp y

of Kalundborg

Fertilizer 7Heat17 Waste water 1995

1 Surface water 1961

3Surface

treatment

Purifica-tion

of water23Alko

Novozymes

industry

10 Surface water 198713 Sulphur 1990

Fertilizer 2001 9 Steam 1982

1981water1973

of water22Water200424 Sea water 2007

Alko-holicresidue

Novozymes

Novo Nordisk

AsnsPower Station

StatoilRefinery

15 Gas 1992

11 Coolingwater 1987 8 Steam 1982

14 Tech.water 1991

Fish farmRe-usebasin 12Yeastslurry1989

4Biomass/NovoGro1976

5 Fly ash1979

6 Heat1980/89

2Gas

1972 18 Drain water 199520

FlyAsh

199921 Deionized water 2002

FarmsGyproc

Cementindustry

16 Gypsum 19931999

Recovery of nickeland vanadium

Pig farms

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The Symbiosis Institute1996

Collaboration with Noveren

Distribution of warm water from waste heat

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AnnualResourceSavingsinKalundborg

1.9 million m3 ground waterg 1 million m3 surface water200 000 l 200 000 ton natural gypsum

20 000 ton oil equivalentsq Reduced emissions to air and water, e.g. 240 000 t CO240,000 ton CO2

Economic Savings >15 million US dollarsg

30

Concepts on Different Levels

LevelLevel ConceptConcept StructureStructure ProcessProcess

ConceptsonDifferentLevels

pp

SocietySociety RationalityRationalityMacroMacro SustainabilitySustainability PowerPower

StakeholderStakeholderPolicy strategyPolicy strategyDisseminationDissemination

MesoMeso Industrial EcologyIndustrial EcologyManagementManagementStakeholderStakeholderP tiP ti

MimickingMimickingDisseminationDisseminationL iL iPerceptionPerception LearningLearning

P tiP tiMicroMicro Cleaner productionCleaner production

PerceptionPerceptionInformationInformationDecisionDecision--makingmaking

TranslationTranslationLearningLearning

31

RotterdamIndustrialSymbiosis

INESProject 19941997

Research & Feasibility Projects (Delft/EUR)Research&FeasibilityProjects(Delft/EUR)

INESMainportProject 19992002

Dissemination&Stakeholderbuilding

Sustainable Enterprises 20032010SustainableEnterprises 20032010

InnovationthroughStrategicDecisionmakingplatform

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INESProject

INES MainportProject

R3 SustainableEnterprises

RotterdamClimate Initiative

1994 1997 1999 2002; 2003-07 today

33

SomeINESprogrammeresults

A compressed air supplier grows from the delivery of 4 p pp g ycompanies in 2000 to 17 companies in 2005Application low-calories gas in oil-drilling processLyondell designs a new plant on I.S. Principles: Outsourcing utilities in a new plantHeat delivery from a chemical company to a truck cleaning companyHappy Shrimp farm

34

Greenhouseproject:Greenhouseproject:

O2ASystemconceptASystemconcept

SunlightCO2 & NOx

Ai liftBiofuelPower Plant Airlift

systemBiofuelPlant

Farm-water mediaWater & heat

Rest heatRest heat

35

Decoupling CO2p g 2

36

Decoupling CO2p g 2

37

Cositing attheHuntsmansite

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WasteHeatInfrastructure

39

4040

www.www.deltalinqs.deltalinqs.

nlnl

Maasvlakte2onIndustrialEcologybasis

Industrial Ecology as attractor for industry Industrial cluster of Maasvlakte2

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stergtlandLinks

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Industrialsymbiosisdefinition

Ch i i f i d i l l iCharacteristics of industrial ecology is to turn environmental problems into pbusiness opportunities by applying wide system boundaries usingwide system boundaries, using resources efficiently and co-operate through resource sharing

Definition used in the marketing of the concept as an umbrella for environmentally driven regional development in stergtland

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environmentally driven regional development in stergtland

BiogasproductionplantsinLinkping andNorrkping

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Production site at Production site at by, Linkpingby, Linkping

55 000 tonnes of organic materials processed annually.

50 000 tonnes of certified bio-fertilizer sold annually on a regional market.

Production in operation since 1997.

Total sales of 7,2 million Nm3

45

Spiralcarrierofgrowingvegetablesind hroundgreenhouse

46

FarmBiogasDigester

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Ageratec i i l bl b iTurningenvironmentalproblemstobusiness

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AMANDA:Bi i Li k i V ikBiogastrainLinkping VstervikInoperationsince2005p

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Brief facts from Svensk Biogas

13 years full-scale experience

9.5 percent of all car fuel in Linkping

64 buses, ~1400 cars, 13 filling stations

(5 in Linkping) and 1 bus depot

50

Sustainable Regional DevelopmentSustainableRegionalDevelopment

Metabolism material and Governance and

i i ienergy

S i l d

institutionsSustainable Regional

DevelopmentSocial and business d namics

Technical systems and infrastructure

Development

dynamics

51

Current energy and material flows in citiesCurrentenergyandmaterialflowsincities

Gaseous fossil fuels

CO2,NOx,SOx

Solidwaste(Landfills)

CH4Liquid fossil fuels

Food

Water

Food

Wastewater,liquidwaste(Riversorundergroundwater)

Constructionmaterials

52

Throughanindustrialecologyapproachg gy pp

The rban en ironment is treated as anThe urban environment is treated as an interconnected system, not isolated subsystems

Linear behaviours are transformed into circular ones

Energy and material waste is minimized

Links are given special importance

Products/materials are converted to another use Products/materials are converted to another use when their initial use is completed

53

Circularizationofenergyandmaterialflows

Organic portionOrganicportion(Biogasproduction)

CO2,NOx,SOx

CH4(Upgrading)

Combustibleportion(Electricityor

heating/cooling)

Liquidfossilfuels

Gaseousfossilfuels

Food

WaterMetalsandother

minerals

ood

Ashesfromincineration(Constructionmaterial)Constructionmaterials

Wastewater,liquidwaste(Biogasproduction)

OrganicFertilizer(Urbanagriculture)

Usedcookingoil(Biodieselproduction)

54

TurningIdentifiedProblemsintoOpportunities

Water shortage/quality Food shortageg q y g

Air pollution Fossil fuel dependency

55

Waste management Source: Free photos bank

Benefitsformegacities

Reduction of their dependence on fossil fuels and pvirgin materials

Protection of part of their social economic and Protection of part of their social, economic and productive systems from external factors (e.g. political drawbacks shortage/distribution problemspolitical drawbacks, shortage/distribution problems, volatility of international prices)

An increased effectiveness of their planning activitiesas they would be based to a large extent y gon their own resources

Reduction of their environmental burden

56

Reduction of their environmental burden (Quality of life)

.Anewwayofaddressingenvironmentalproblemsi l i l lf idgivesnewsolutions,notalwaysselfevident

An example of a scenario with the best technology in Mexico City: Biogas

270 000 tons BOD with a potential of 135 MNm3 CH4/year

Source: corona.com.co

O p C 4 y(1.3 TWh/year). Energy needed to pump 18% of the citys water. Around 13% is treated

700 tons/day of organic waste from the...

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