Classification of boreal forest ecosystem goods and ...· Classification of boreal forest ecosystem

  • View
    214

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Classification of boreal forest ecosystem goods and ...· Classification of boreal forest ecosystem

  • Publications of the University of Eastern Finland Reports and Studies in Forestry and Natural Sciences No 11

    Classification of boreal forest ecosystem goods and services in Finland

    Olli Saastamoinen, Jukka Matero, Paula Horne, Matleena Kniivil, Emmi Haltia, Matti Vaara &Hannu Mannerkoski

  • OLLI SAASTAMOINEN, JUKKA MATERO, PAULA HORNE, MATLEENA

    KNIIVIL, EMMI HALTIA, HANNU MANNERKOSKI & MATTI VAARA

    Classification of boreal

    forest ecosystem goods and

    services in Finland

    Publications of the University of Eastern Finland

    Reports and Studies in Forestry and Natural Sciences

    Number 11

    University of Eastern Finland

    Faculty of Science and Forestry

    School of Forest Sciences

    Joensuu

    2014

  • 2

    Authors affiliations: Olli Saastamoinen1, Jukka Matero2, Paula Horne3, Matleena

    Kniivil3 , Emmi Haltia3 , Hannu Mannerkoski1 & Matti Vaara1

    1University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences; School of Forest Sciences;

    2University of Eastern Finland ( - 30.7.2012); 3Pellervo Economic Research PTT

    Contact: Olli Saastamoinen, e-mail: olli.saastamoinen@uef.fi

    Joensuu, 2014

    Editor Prof. Pertti Pasanen,

    Prof. Pekka Kilpelinen, Prof. Kai Peiponen, Prof. Matti Vornanen

    Distribution:

    Eastern Finland University Library / Sales of publications

    P.O.Box 107, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland

    tel. +358-50-3058396

    http://www.uef.fi/kirjasto

    ISBN: 978-952-61-1041-7

    ISBN: 978-952-61-1042-4 (PDF)

    ISSNL: 1798-5684

    ISSN: 1798-5684

    ISSN: 1798-5692 (PDF)

  • ABSTRACT

    The report aims to a systematic identification and

    classification of the boreal forest ecosystem goods and services

    of Finland. Forest sciences together with other sciences and

    professional knowledge provide a basis for that purpose. Work

    is based on the Common International Classification of

    Ecosystem Services (CICES). It is a hierarchic system potentially

    becoming a standard within EU. The classification of many

    provisioning goods of forests is more straightforward than

    those of the other major categories. However, the number of

    forest goods in Finland is large and their logical grouping was

    seen to benefit from adopting an additional level of hierarchy,

    used also in other categories. Classification of some regulation

    and maintenance services was less straightforward. Sometimes

    it was due to gaps in existing research knowledge or due to

    characteristics of services as multifunctional processes. Many of

    these services require more attention in future research. The

    cultural services involve a large spectrum of forest related

    meanings and issues for which CICES provided enough space

    to be applied in the specific cultural context of Finland. The

    outdoor recreation research in Finland offered good basis to the

    identification of the environmental settings of recreational

    activities. Apart from CICES an outlook of disservices of

    ecosystems is included. Some general conclusions based on this

    classification are given. Discussion extends the scope a bit

    towards considerations how ecosystem services are related to

    wooden structures, which are further away from forests. As

    far it is known this is the first national level study which has

    applied CICES classification focusing only on the boreal forest

    ecosystem services.

    Keywords: Forest ecosystem services, provisioning services,

    regulation and maintenance services, cultural services, CICES,

    disservices, boreal forests, Finland, classification

  • 4

    ABSTRAKTI

    Raportin tarkoituksena on tunnistaa ja luokitella

    systemaattisesti Suomen boreaalisten metsekosysteemien

    aineelliset ja aineettomat tuotteet ja palvelut. Luokittelu

    perustuu mets- ja muiden tieteiden tutkimuksen ja

    ammatillisen tiedon pohjalle. Ty soveltaa kansainvlist

    ekosysteemipalvelujen luokittelua (Common International

    Classification of Ecosystem Services, CICES), josta saattaa tulla

    standardi EU:n piiriss. Metsist saatavien tuotantopalvelujen

    luokittelu on selvpiirteisemp kuin muiden pluokkien

    palveluiden. Metsn tuotteiden moninaisuus on kuitenkin suuri

    ja siksi niiden looginen luokittelu edellytti yhden

    luokittelutason lismist. Sit sovellettiin mys muissa

    pluokissa. Metsien stely- ja yllpitopalvelujen luokittelu on

    monimutkaisempaa johtuen osin tiedon aukoista ja niiden

    monivaikutteisten prosessien luonteesta. Kulttuurisiin

    ekosysteemipalveluihin kuuluu laaja kirjo metsiin liittyvi

    merkityksi, joiden luokitteluun CICES tarjoaa hyvin tilaa.

    Suomessa tehty virkistyskytttutkimus tarjoaa hyvn pohjan

    tunnistaa metsien erilaisten virkistystoimintojen ympristj.

    Mukana on erillinen - CICES-luokitukseen kuulumaton

    katsaus metsekosysteemien tuottamiin haittoihin. Luokitusta

    koskevien johtoptsten ohella keskustellaan lyhyesti

    ekosysteemipalveluihin liittyvi rakenteita kauempana

    metsst. Tutkimus on tiettvsti ensimminen kansallisen

    tason yritys boreaalisten metsien ekosysteemipalvelujen

    yksityiskohtaiseksi jsentmiseksi CICES -luokittelun

    mukaisesti.

    Avainsanat: Metsn ekosysteemipalvelut, tuotantopalvelut,

    stely- ja yllpitopalvelut, kulttuuriset ekosysteemipalvelut,

    CICES, metsien tuottamat haitat, boreaaliset metst, Suomi,

    luokittelu

  • 5

    Forward

    This report is a part of the synthesis study Integrated and

    policy relevant valuation of forest, agro-, peatland and aquatic

    ecosystem services in Finland funded by The Maj and Tor

    Nessling Foundation. The study is carried out by the University

    of Eastern Finland and Pellervo Economic Research PTT

    together with a number of voluntary contributing authors from

    several research institutes, universities and expert organizations.

    The objective of the study was to produce an up-to-date

    synthesis of the goods and services of forest, agro-, peatland and

    aquatic ecosystems in Finland to serve improved decision

    making, governance and public communication.

    It is hoped that this report on the identification and

    classification of the goods and services of boreal forest

    ecosystems in Finland will contribute to the knowledge and

    further development in this field. The work is done in

    aspiration that it furthers understanding of the multiple roles

    the forests play for the well-being of the people in Finland.

    It is my pleasure to thank the Maj and Tor Nessling

    Foundation for their initiative and funding of this study and the

    support of the project management group. I would like to thank

    the co-authors, who are not responsible for the prolonged

    finalization of the report.

    The help of the Finnish Forest Research Institute and the

    Finnish Environment Institute concerning the maps and other

    schemes of this publication is highly appreciated. The support

    given by the School of Forest Sciences of the University of

    Eastern Finland is gratefully noticed. Marjut Turtiainen (in early

    phase) and Matti Vaara (later on, besides his author

    contribution) have helped in the technical editing.

    Olli Saastamoinen

    Professor emeritus

  • 6

    Contents

    1. Introduction .................................................................................... 7

    1.1 Multitude of forest benefits ......................................................... 7

    1.2 Past benefits of European forests ................................................ 8

    1.3 Pre-industrial forest uses in Finland as ecosystem services . 12

    1.4 Political, economic and social dvelopment during the

    independence .................................................................................... 17

    1.5 Conceptual approaches towards the multiplicity of forest

    benefits in Central Europe, the Nordic Countries and Finland . 20

    1.6 Multiple-use and ecosystem service classification ................. 22

    1.7 Forests in the science of ecosystem services............................ 23

    1.8 Forest ecosystem services in recent Finnish forest literature 27

    1.9 Purpose of the study ................................................................... 29

    2. Finland's boreal forests ............................................................... 31

    2.1 The global boreal forest context ................................................ 31

    2.2 Ecological history and forest zones in Finland ....................... 33

    2.2 Current land use and forest resources ..................................... 36

    3. Classification of forest ecosystem goods and services in

    Finland using CICES ...................................................................... 43

    3.1 Introduction to CICES ................................................................ 43

    3.2 Provisioning services .................................................................. 46

    3.3 Regulation and maintenance services ...................................... 69

    3.4 Cultural services ....................................................................... 113

    4. Disservices of forest ecosystems ............................................. 146

    5. Conclusions ..........................................................................