Classical GreeceUnit 5HERODOTUSHistoriae = history
The first to detail the events of the Persian WarsHe wrote about other Greek and Persian history and geography alsoMost of his works were written DECADES after the actual events
First to apply the method of writing historyIncludes research combined with a critical attitude
GREEKS AND BARBARIANSHerodotus introduced the Greeks to foreign peoplesHe included both ideas and knowledge about Egyptians, Persians, Scythians etc)
Barbarians are described in philosophy, literature and medicineOftentimes, Greeks would indirectly describe themselves when referencing barbarians
Criticized Xerxes despotic rule, Persian cowardice and luxurious lifestyleATHENIAN NAVYFocused on increasing their Navy
Primarily built the trireme
Oarsmen were thetes, men who were too poor to be hoplites
Financed by tribute collected from its allies and subjects
ATHENIAN DEMOCRACYBy 400 B.C., Athens was a radical democracyANYONE could speak at assembly, no matter what social class you were
9 archons chief magistrates and council of 500 were elected
Assembly, or ecclesia, met 40 times a year, with about 6000 people attending
451 B.C. Athens allows only men with TWO Athenian parents to be citizens
ATHENIAN EMPIRE478 B.C. Athenians took over Greek forces
Delian League Alliance led by AthensIts treasury and headquarters were located on DelosPrimarily the Aegean Islands and Ionia
454 B.C. headquarters and treasury moved to AthensAthens began to view their allies as their subjects
Athens forces its allies to pay tribute
Athens stretched to its furthest extent during this period478 B.C. 431 B.C.
PERICLESFirst citizen of Athens
461-429 B.C. Age of Pericles
Spread Athens Empire and established the Delian League as an Athenian Empire
Introduced the building projects on the Acropolis
Introduced the idea of paying jurors
Athens was In name Democracy, but in fact the rule of one man
ATHENIAN ACROPOLISAcropolis citadel or settlement built upon a hill
Parthenon built to goddess Athena to honor their victory at Marathon
Parthenon virtual tour
Only planned, state-funded building program in Classical Greece
ATHENIAN DRAMAComedies and Tragedies
Mostly done in the 5th century B.C.
Civic festivals to honor DionysusGod of wineEach playwright was usually sponsored by a wealthy citizen
Chorus would sing and dance the odeThis was the foundation of the performanceIn addition, tragic choruses speak for the citizens while comedic ones criticize the government
Tragic drama was invented when a poet named Thespis added speeches and an actor to the tragic chorusTHEATER OF DIONYSUSTheaters usually overlooked a flat area
Orchestra = dancing place
Audience organized by social status, politics, or tribes
Were free at first, but eventually issues tickets
Pericles and the Acropolishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vHMu2gVzspA
Begin at 29:00SophistsSkill in public speaking was EXTREMELY important in Classical AthensWhy would it be valued more in Athens than in other city-states?Rhetoric persuasive speaking
Sophist speaking experts who taught rhetoricsophos = wiseThey came from all over Greece to live and work in Athens, they were both philosophers and teachers
Protagoras man is the measure of all things; He could make the weaker argument stronger
Sophists were throughout the Mediterranean, often argued in abstract and theoretical termsThucydides and the Peloponnesian Warshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uFXJWkEvNgkThucydidesFought for Athens in the Peloponnesian Wars
Exiled in 424 B.C.
Wrote from an Athenian perspective, constantly references their culture and society
Pericles funeral oration
Thucydides never wrote anything down until later, and even admits as much
Tried to use eye-witness accountVery dry writing styleHow is this different from Herodotus?Eliminates divine interventionMore scientific and accurate
First Peloponnesian War460 B.C. 445 B.C.
FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM: How a naval power like Athens could defeat a landlocked Sparta, and how Sparta, with no effective navy, could hop to capture Athens.
Early 470s Themistocles ostracized, Cimon takes over
Cimon has friendly relationships with SpartaHe like Sparta so much, he named his first born son Lakedaemonios
Sparta has helot revolts approx. 460 B.C.Athens send 4,000 men led by Cimon to assistHow does Sparta respond?Cimon is exiled
Athens then took control of Thessaly, Argos and Magara
Battle of Tanagra457 B.C.
Phocis and Doris were fighting
Doris was allied with Sparta, Phocis was allied with Athens
Sparta supports Doris and fights Athenian forces on Boeotia
Sparta wins, but Athens rebounds
Athens takes Boeotia, Aegina, finishes its walls, and begin to sack Peloponnesian cities and docks
TruceFollowing an unsuccessful trip to Egypt, Athens created a truce with Sparta
451 B.C. Cimon returns negotiates a 5 year truce
446-445 B.C. Thirty Years PeaceMegara was returned to Sparta
Second Peloponnesian War431-404 B.C.
PHASE 1 (431-421): Archidamian War Sparta attacks Athens on land, Athens attacks Sparta by sea
PHASE 2 (415-413 B.C.): Sicilian Expedition disastrous Athenian expedition
PHASE 3 (413-404 B.C.): Sparta is supported by Persia, promote uprisings in the Athenian Empire
BREAKDOWN OF PEACE433 B.C. - Battle of Sybota - Athens supports Corcyra against Corinth
432 B.C. - Athens encourages Potidaea to revolt, Corinth supports with troopsThis directly violates the Thirty Years Peace
432 B.C. Airing of Grievances in SpartaCorinth is furious Sparta is too passive, talks them into war
The Archidamian War431-421 B.C.
Few decisive battles, particularly because of the stark differences between Athens and Sparta
Invaded land surrounding Athens, try to siege the city
How did Pericles keep Athens from fighting?
The Hoplites only stayed for a few weeks at a time though! They needed to go home for the harvest and for support in case of a helot rebellion.Pericles Funeral OrationDelivered following the first year of battle
Honoring the Athenian dead soldiers
Recorded by Thucydides in History of the Peloponnesian War
Often compared to the Gettysburg Address
Sometimes viewed as a eulogy of Athens in and of itself..WHY?
Pericles Funeral OrationPRAISE OF THE DEAD SUPPORT FOR THE WAR
the reputations of many brave men" should "not be imperiled in the mouth of a single individual
"That part of our history which tells of the military achievements which gave us our several possessions, or of the ready valour with which either we or our fathers stemmed the tide of Hellenic or foreign aggression, is a theme too familiar to my hearers for me to dwell upon, and I shall therefore pass it by." Instead, Pericles proposes to focus on "the road by which we reached our position, the form of government under which our greatness grew, and the national habits out of which it sprang". This amounts to a focus on present day Athens; Thucydides' Pericles thus decides to praise the war dead by glorifying the city for which they died.Pericles Funeral OrationTHE GREATNESS OF ATHENS
"If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences...if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. The freedom we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for doing what he likes... The liberality of which Pericles spoke also extended to Athens' foreign policy: "We throw open our city to the world, and never by alien acts exclude foreigners from any opportunity of learning or observing, although the eyes of an enemy may occasionally profit by our liberality..." Yet Athens' values of equality and openness do not, according to Pericles, hinder Athens' greatness, indeed, they enhance it, "...advancement in public life falls to reputations for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit...our ordinary citizens, though occupied with the pursuits of industry, are still fair judges of public matters...at Athens we live exactly as we please, and yet are just as ready to encounter every legitimate danger."
Pericles Funeral OrationTHE GREATNESS OF ATHENS
In the climax of his praise of Athens, Pericles declares: "In short, I say that as a city we are the school of Hellas; while I doubt if the world can produce a man, who where he has only himself to depend upon, is equal to so many emergencies, and graced by so happy a versatility as the Athenian." Finally, Pericles links his praise of the city to the dead Athenians for whom he is speaking, "...for the Athens that I have celebrated is only what the heroism of these and their like have made her...none of these men allowed either wealth with its prospect of future enjoyment to unnerve his spirit, or poverty with its hope of a day of freedom and riches to tempt him to shrink from danger. No, holding that vengeance upon their enemies was more to be desired than any personal blessings, and reckoning this to be the most glorious of hazards, they joyfully determined to accept the risk... Thus, choosing to die resisting, rather than to live submitting, they fled only from dishonor..." The conclusion seems inevitable: "Therefore, having judged that to be happy means to be fr