Classical Declarative Knowledge

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Classical Declarative KnowledgeChamber Music

Played in chambers Church driven Normally in small groups - string quartet, piano quartet, woodwind quartet/quintet Can be performed with 2-10 instruments Homophonic unless in the development where it is contrapuntal texture Al-berti bass line 18th Century Hyden, Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms, Shubert Sonata form - fast, slow, fast Minuet Introduction of the pianoforte Modulation with relative keys, pivot notes Divertimento Serenades Hyden emperor quartet Mozart clarinet quintet

Comparison Between Baroque and Classical Baroque Ornate, often asymmetrical melodies Dramatic leaps common Use of chromaticism for expressive purposes Varied rhythms Strong underlying pulse Varied tempos Triadic, major/minor tonality Basso continuo Wide variety of instrumental colors Terraced dynamics Classical Simple melodies, often in four and eight-measure phrases Primarily stepwise motion Melodies more diatonic More consistent rhythms Less insistent pulse More regular tempos Triadic, based on major/minor tonality No basso continuo More homogenous orchestral color, winds play supporting role Use of gradual crescendos and

Melody

Rhythm

Harmony

Sound

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Harpsichord Texture Form Imitative or homophonic Binary and ternary forms Forms based on repetition (ritornello)

diminuendos Piano More homophonic Binary and ternary forms Based on return (sonata allegro)

Classicism in the Arts

The Classical era (17501825) is characterized by order, objectivity, and harmonious proportion. This is reflected in the art and architecture of the time, modeled on ancient Greek and Roman styles. The American Revolution (177583) and the French Revolution (178999) profoundly changed political systems and social order. The era saw significant advances in science and ideas, and the Industrial Revolution made mass production possible. German writers like Goethe and Schiller expressed the emerging romantic view of the world. Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubertall members of the Viennese schoolcomposed in large-scale forms (symphony, concerto, sonata). Classical music is characterized by a singable, lyrical melody; diatonic harmony; regular rhythms and meters; homophonic texture; and frequent use of folk elements. Music-making revolved around the court, with composers (especially Haydn) employed under the patronage system. Women also held court positions as musicians and teachers.

The Development of Classical Forms I. Expanding Musical Ideas 1. Theme: musical idea, building block 2. Thematic development: expansion of a theme 1. motive: melodic fragment derived from themes 2. sequence: repetition at a higher or lower pitch level 3. ostinato: short repeated pattern Classical Forms 1. Absolute music: no text or story 2. Multimovement cycle 1. 1750 through Romantic era 2. three or four separate movements in one piece 3. prescribed forms and tempos

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III.

IV.

V.

The First Movement 1. Allegro (fast tempo) 2. Long, dramatic, tonic key 3. Sonata-allegro (sonata) form 1. drama between two contrasting key areas 2. each key associated with a theme 3. exposition: presents two opposing keys and themes 1. theme 1: establishes home key, tonic 2. bridge: transitional passage 3. theme 2: contrasting key 4. closing section, often a closing theme 5. exposition repeats: establishes themes 4. development: conflict and action 1. foreign keys, frequent modulations 2. activity and restlessness 3. building of tension 4. themes varied, expanded, contracted 5. recapitulation: restatement of themes 1. theme 1: return, provides unity 2. theme 2: returns in tonic key 6. coda: final cadence in home key The Second Movement 1. Andante or adagio (slow tempo) 2. Lyrical, songful melodies, related key 3. Form: A-B-A, sonata-allegro, or theme and variations 1. theme and variations: theme clearly stated; structured variations 1. melodic variation: decorative flourishes to melody 2. harmonic variation: chords replaced; shift from major to minor 3. rhythmic variation: note lengths, meter, or tempo varied The Third Movement 1. Stately triple meter, tonic key 2. Minuet and trio form 1. Baroque era origins: court dance 2. two dances presented as a group, (A-B-A) 1. B section: originally three instrumentstrio 2. Da capo, from the beginning first dance repeated 3. internal structure: binary (a-a-b-b), or rounded binary (a-a-ba-ba) 3. Scherzo and trio form 1. early 19th century 2. scherzo, Italian jest 3. quick-paced triple meter 4. (A-B-A) structure

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VI.

VII.

The Fourth Movement 1. Allegro, vivace (fast tempo) 2. Lively, spirited, tonic key 3. Rondo, or sonata-allegro form 4. Rondo form: recurrence of musical idea (A) 1. A-B-A-C-A; extension of three-part form 2. longer arched form, A-B-A-C-A-B-A The Multimovement Cycle as a Whole 1. Extended instrumental works, abstract nature 2. Symphonies, sonatas, string quartets, concertos

Classical Chamber Music I. Chamber Music 1. Music for a small ensemble 2. Two to twelve players: one per part 3. Players function as a team 4. Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Schubert 1. established chamber music style 5. Favored instrument combinations: 1. string quartet: first and second violins, viola, and cello 2. duo sonata: violin and piano, or cello and piano 3. piano trio: violin, cello, and piano 4. quintet: combination of string or wind instruments 5. string quartet with solo piano or clarinet The String Quartet 1. Multimovement cyle; four movements 2. Salon music; private, profound expressions 3. Joseph Haydn (17321809) 1. prolific Austrian composer 2. choirboy at St. Stephens Cathedral in Vienna 3. Esterhzys: patron for nearly thirty years 1. directed orchestra, opera company, marionette theater 4. two visits to England (179192, 179495) 1. London symphonies, Nos. 93104 5. expanded size of orchestra 1. emphasis on brass, clarinets, and percussion 6. composed over 100 symphonies, 68 string quartets, concertos, 14 operas, keyboard music 4. Haydns Emperor Quartet 1. based on his own hymn tune 1. Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (God Keep Franz the Emperor) 2. became Austrian national anthem 3. today, same melody is Germanys national song 2. lyrical tune, favorite of Hadyns 3. Op. 76, set of six quartets

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III.

5. Listening Guide 28: Haydn, String Quartet, Op.76, No. 3, (Emperor), II (1797) 1. poco adagio 2. theme and variations 3. theme: first violin, homophonic texture 4. variation 3: some chromaticism 5. variation 4: polyphonic 6. coda: ends softly Mozart and Chamber Music 1. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (17561791) 1. Austrian composer, pianist 2. son of Leopold Mozart, court composer-violinst 3. child prodigy: toured Europe with sister, Nannerl 4. worked briefly in patronage system 5. age twenty-five, struggled as freelance musician in Vienna 6. prolific composer of all genres: chamber music, keyboard works, symphony, concertos, opera 7. music: elegant, songful, contrasts of mood, colorful orchestration 8. Ludwig Kchel: catalogued Mozarts music chronologically 2. Eiene kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music) 1. serenade for strings: string quartet and double bass, or string orchestra 2. outdoor performance, public entertainment 3. four movements: follows multimovement cycle 4. beautifully proportioned, elegant 3. Listening Guide 29: Mozart, Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music), K. 525 (1787) 1. mvt. 1: allegro; sonata-allegro form 1. theme 1: disjunct, ascending rocket theme 2. theme 2: elegant, descending contour 3. short development 4. vigorous coda 2. mvt. 2: romanza, andante; sectional rondo form (A-B-A-C-A) 1. contrasting key area 2. serene lyricism 3. short coda 3. mvt. 3: allegretto; minuet and trio form 1. strong, triple meter 2. regular four-bar phrases, rounded binary 3. minuet: bright, decisive 4. trio: lyrical contrast 4. mvt. 4: allegro; sonata-rondo form 1. bright, jovial, refined 2. combines rondo and sonata-allegro forms 3. theme 1: graceful rocket theme 4. theme 2: descending, new character PIECES: Haydn, String Quartet, Op.76 No.3 Mozart Eine kleine Nachtmusik K525

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The Classical Symphony I. Historical Background 1. Outgrowth of Italian opera overture 1. fast-slow-fast sections became separate movements 2. German symphonists: added effects, expanded genre 1. rocket theme 1. quick, aggressive, rhythmic 2. rises from low to high register 2. steam-roller effect: drawn-out crescendos 3. addition of the minuet and trio The Classical Orchestra 1. Four instrument families 1. strings: heart of the orchestra 2. woodwinds: often double the strings 3. brass: sustained harmonies 4. percussion: timpani, rhythmic life and vitality 2. 18th-century orchestra: 30 to 40 players 3. Musical effects borrowed from opera 1. abrupt alternation of p and f 2. sudden accents 3. dramatic pauses 4. use of tremolo and pizzicato The Movements of the Symphony 1. First movement: allegro; sonata-allegro form 1. sometimes slow introduction (Haydn) 2. two contrasting themes 3. monothematic: second theme is theme 1 in contrasting key 2. Second movement: largo, adagio, or andante 1. contrasting key area 2. lyrical; less development of themes 3. forms: 1. ternary (A-B-A) 2. theme and variations 3. modified sonata-allegro: no development section 3. Third movement: moderate tempo; minuet and trio form 1. gentler mood 2. Beethoven replaced minuet and trio with scherzo and trio 1. fast-paced triple meter 4. Fourth movement (finale): allegro molto, presto 1. rondo or sonata-allegro form 2. lighter, spirited Mozarts Symphony No. 40 1. Known in Vienna as the Romantic symphony 2. Listening Guide 30: Mozart, Symphony No. 40 in G minor, First