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Class 4 Literature Reviews and Ethics

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Class 4 Literature Reviews and Ethics

Text of Class 4 Literature Reviews and Ethics

  • Review of Research Design, Literature Reviews,
    Ethics and Research

    Dr. Ed Carberry

    Methodology of Management Science

    September 28 29

    Rotterdam School of Management

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    Review for Part 1

    Submit your questions directly to me by Friday, October 2

    [email protected]

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    Outline of Todays Lecture

    Review of last week: research designGetting a project startedInitial considerations (Chp 3)Conducting literature reviews (Chap 4)Referencing and plagiarism (Chap 4)Ethical issues (Chap 5)

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    Review of Last Week

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    The Research Process

    Formulating questions

    Literature review

    Specifying the purpose of the research

    Research design choices

    Choosing a research strategy

    Data collection

    Data analysis

    Writing up results

    Disseminating results

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    Research Process

    Formulating research questionsShould be as clear and specific as possibleConnected to existing literatureCan be modified

    Purpose of research

    Exploratory: what is going on?Descriptive: how is it happening?Explanatory: why is it happening?

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    Research Design Choices

    Research methodTechnique of data collectionResearch designGuiding framework for collecting and analyzing dataWhat influences research design choices?Intellectual assumptions and paradigmsResearch questionResources availableImportance of causality, generalization, and context

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    Research Design Choices

    Type of explanation (social context)Ideographic: focusing on one case and all the possible causes and influencesNomothetic: identify a few causal factors that impact a number of casesRelationship between theory and dataDeductive: theory >>> dataInductive: data >>> theory

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    Research Design Choices

    Type of dataQualitative: words and meaningsResults of interviews, direct observation, ethnographyQuantitative: numbersSurveys, financial data, experimentsOften associated with specific ontological and epistemological assumptionsWhich people or phenomena? (generalization)PopulationSample

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    Research Design Choices

    Causality and the role of time (deductive and quantitative)Conditions for nomothetic causalityCorrelationTime-orderingNonspurious relationshipCross-sectional vs. longitudinal researchOne point in time vs. several points in timeLongitudinal is essential for uncovering time-orderingInductive and qualitative research is often longitudinal

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    Research Design Choices

    How will your research be evaluated?Reliability: consistent measurementValidityConstruct validity: do your measures accurately reflect the underlying concept? Internal validity: do your causal relationships make sense? External validity: do your results apply outside of your research setting? Ecological validity: do your results apply to the every day world and real actors?

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    Research Design Choices

    Nomothetic vs. ideographicDeductive vs. inductiveQuantitative vs. qualitativePopulation and samplingCross-sectional vs. longitudinalReliability, replication, and validity

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    Research Design Choices

    How do our assumptions shape research design?Objectivist ontology, positivist epistemologyDeductive, quantitative, nomothetic approachConstructionist ontology, interpretivist epistemologyInductive, qualitative, ideographic approach

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    Research Design

    How does the importance of different factors influence design?CausalityLongitudinal, deductive/inductiveGeneralizationNomothethic, samplingThe specific social context in which social behavior occursInductive, ideographic

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    Research Design Strategies

    ExperimentalCausalityDeductiveQuantitativeSurveyNomotheticQuantitative: measurement very importantCross-sectional or longitudinalCase studiesFlexible and ideographic

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    Research Design: An Example

    What is the effect of layoffs on employees who keep their jobs?Causality and generalizationDeductive, nomothetic, longitudinalSurvey a random sample of employees in a random sample of companiesConduct survey every 3 months for two years

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    Research Design: An Example

    What is the effect of layoffs on employees who keep their jobs?Social context and changes over timeInductive, ideographic, and longitudinalCase study with one companyIn-depth interviews, focus groups, observation
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    Getting Started

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    Getting Started

    Initial considerations

    Research questions

    Literature review and sources

    Referencing and plagiarism

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    Initial Considerations

    What is expected of your institution and project? BA/IBA thesis?Masters thesis?Do not be afraid to use your supervisorConsult early and oftenKeep meticulous recordsHow will you access your data? Do you need to negotiate access? Do you need to learn new software for data analysis?

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    Initial Considerations

    Time management: many phases of research take longer than you expectFormulate research questionsLiterature reviewResearch design and methodsWrite research proposalData collectionData analysisWrite first and subsequent drafts

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    Literature Reviews

    Description, summary, and critical evaluation of existing workEngaging in an intellectual conversationWhy is your research important? What does it contribute?Ongoing throughout research project

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    Literature Reviews

    PurposeJustifies and motivates your core questionWhat is already known? What are the significant controversies?How have different researchers approached the question? What are the most interesting questions?Where is there space for a contribution?

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    Literature Reviews

    Purpose Assessing plan designIdentify potential concepts and variablesWhat types of methods have been used?Interpreting your findingsChallengesMuch has been done: what can you contribute? Too much information: your question crosses boundaries and involves multiple literaturesBalancing systematic analysis with gaining understanding
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    Elements of Good Literature Reviews

    Making informed judgments about relevant sourcesMoving beyond description and summaryParticipating in a conversation: how do different sources relate to each other?How does existing work set up your own original core question or thesis?Evaluating research design, data collection, analysis and conclusionsHow might specific sources be biased and how might this influence their argument and use of evidence?

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    Using Sources

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    Google/Wikipedia: be very very carefulWhat is the source of the site?Person or organization behind the site?How current is the information?Can be good for initial explorationGoogle scholar can be very helpful

    Finding Sources

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    Finding Sources

    BooksIn-depth single volumes on a topicChapters in edited volumesText booksJournal articlesAcademy of Management JournalAdministrative Science QuarterlyStrategic Management Journal

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    Finding Sources

    Non-academic research and reportsGovernment organizationsPolicy organizationsTrade associationsUnions and employee groupsShareholder activistsSocial movement organizations

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    Finding Sources

    Academic research: electronic databasesABI/INFORMEBSCO Business Source PremierSocial Science Citation Index
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    Accessing Library Databases

    Library (http://www.eur.nl/ub/english)SearchClick DatabasesIf accessing from campusAlphabetical listMost frequently usedIf accessing from off campusClick Access to Databases from HomePick the correct manual for your PC operating system
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    Using ABI Inform/Proquest

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    ABI Inform/Proquest: Types of Sources

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    ABI Inform/Proquest: Getting Full Text Articles

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    Electronic Sources

    Be exhaustive, systematic, flexible and creative about search terms for all of these sourcesPersonnel systems, human resource managementPayment systems, reward managementMany articles and electronic citations contain keywordsAccess to very sophisticated databasesPowerful tools, but can become overwhelmingExperiment and explore
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    Avoiding Plagiarism

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    Plagiarism: Type 1

    Passing off someone elses work as your ownInternet makes it easy, but also makes it easier to detectSafeAssignmentInstructors and TAs are more sensitive to it than you think

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    Plagiarism: Type 1

    AVOID IT AT ALL COSTS!

    Can lead to failing a class,

    dismissal from school

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    Plagiarism: Type 2

    Presenting someone elses thoughts as your ownMore specifically (Babbie 2004: 488-498)Using someone elses exact words without using quotation marks and a complete referenceParaphrasing someone elses words and presenting them as your ownPresenting someone elses ideas as your own, even if you use your own words

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    Referencing

    Proper referencing is the key to avoiding plagiarismKeep a meticulous record of what you readTake clear and extensive notes about how you are going to use the work of othersCommon problemsDirect quotationsParaphrasing and discussing the ideas of others

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    Referencing

    Harvard style (primary method)After you paraphrase an idea or argument of someone else, add the last name and year of publication, in parentheses (Babbie 2004)If quoting, do the same, but also include the page number (Babbie 2004: 487)List all sources at the end in alphabetical order by last name (

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