Chuong 5_1

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  • QUN LMI TRNG NNG THN

    CHNG V

  • 115

    Chng 5Quan ly moi trng nong thon

    CHNG 5

    QUN L MI TRNG NNG THN

    nhim mi trng nng thn v ang tr thnh vn cp bch. Nhn thc c vn , cng tc BVMT nng thn c ch trng nhiu hn. Tuy nhin, qun l mi trng nng thn vn cn c nhiu tn ti, bt cp cha c gii quyt cc mc v cp khc nhau. y chnh l mt trong nhng nguyn nhn quan trng khin cho vn nhim mi trng ti nhiu vng nng thn cha c ci thin, thm ch c xu hng xu hn. Sau y l mt s nh gi, phn tch v cng tc qun l mi trng nng thn ca nc ta trong thi gian qua.

    5.1. CC CHNH SCH V VN BN QUY PHM PHP LUT

    5.1.1. Cc chnh sch v vn bn quy phm php lut to hnh lang php l cho cng tc BVMT nng thn

    Trong nhng nm qua, vn qun l v BVMT nng thn nhn c s quan tm ca ng v Nh nc. Cc ni dung v qun l mi trng nng thn c iu chnh bng nhiu vn bn quy phm php lut, thng qua vic lng ghp vo cc vn bn qun l mi trng ni chung hoc lng ghp vo cc vn bn qun l sn xut chuyn ngnh.

    Theo , Lut Bo v mi trng; Chin lc BVMT quc gia n nm 2010 v nh hng n nm 20201; Chin lc BVMT quc gia n nm 2020, tm nhn 1. Quyt nh s 256/2003/Q-TTg ngy 02/12/2003 ca Th tng Chnh ph v vic ph duyt Chin lc BVMT quc gia n nm 2010 v nh hng n nm 2020.

    n nm 20302; Chng trnh mc tiu quc gia v xy dng nng thn mi giai on 2010 - 20203... u c cc quy nh lin quan n qun l v BVMT nng thn.

    Lut Bo v mi trng nm 2005 a ra cc iu khon quy nh vic BVMT trong sn xut nng nghip, lng ngh, nui trng thy sn, ha cht, thuc BVTV, thuc th y; quy nh v BVMT khu dn c, h gia nh hay t chc t qun v BVMT. Lut Bo v mi trng nm 2014 b sung sa i cc iu khon ny, chi tit, ph hp hn vi iu kin thc tin.

    Chin lc BVMT quc gia n nm 2010 v nh hng n nm 2020 a ra mc tiu gii quyt c bn tnh trng suy thoi mi trng ti mt s vng nng thn; cp nc sch cho dn c khu vc nng thn; xy dng Chng trnh xy dng v ph bin nhn rng cc m hnh lng kinh t sinh thi. Tip theo , Chin lc BVMT quc gia n nm 2020, tm nhn n nm 2030 cng c nhm ni dung, bin php hng ti mc tiu gii quyt c bn cc vn mi trng ti cc lng ngh v vn VSMT nng thn. n nay, cc chng trnh, d n nhm thc hin cc mc tiu t ra cng v ang c trin khai thc hin theo ng l trnh.

    2. Quyt nh s 1216/Q-TTg ngy 05/9/2012 ca Th tng Chnh ph ph duyt Chin lc BVMT quc gia n nm 2020, tm nhn n nm 2030.3. Quyt nh s 800/Q-TTg ngy 04/6/2010 ca Th tng Chnh ph ph duyt Chng trnh mc tiu quc gia v xy dng nng thn mi giai on 2010 2020.

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    116

    Chng trnh mc tiu quc gia nc sch v sinh mi trng nng thn giai on 2012 - 20154 xy dng v trin khai cc ni dung v cp nc sch, VSMT (c nh tiu hp v sinh, chung tri hp v sinh), trong tp trung u tin cho cc vng min ni, vng su vng xa, vng ven bin, ni b kh hn, ang b nhim mi trng... Sau khi chng trnh kt thc nm 2010, cc ni dung v mc tiu nc sch v sinh mi trng nng thn vn tip tc c trin khai v thu c nhiu kt qu tt. Tnh n ht nm 2014, t l dn s nng thn c s dng nc hp v sinh l 84,5%, t l h dn s dng nh tiu hp v sinh t 63%5.

    Chng trnh mc tiu quc gia v xy dng nng thn mi giai on 2010 - 2020 a ra cc ni dung v tip tc thc hin chng trnh mc tiu quc gia v nc sch v VSMT nng thn; xy dng cc cng trnh BVMT nng thn trn a bn x, thn theo quy hoch (xy dng, ci to nng cp h thng tiu thot nc trong thn, xm; xy dng cc im thu gom, x l rc thi cc x; chnh trang, ci to ngha trang; ci to, xy dng cc ao, h sinh thi trong khu dn c, pht trin cy xanh cc cng trnh cng cng...). Theo kt qu nh gi ca B NN&PTNT n cui nm 2014, 97,2% s x c ph duyt quy hoch nng thn mi. Vic trin khai cc tiu ch v nng thn mi, trong c b tiu ch v mi trng cng c trin khai v thu c nhng kt qu nht nh.

    4. Quyt nh s 366/Q-TTg ngy 31/3/2012 ca Th tng Chnh ph ph duyt Chng trnh mc tiu quc gia nc sch v v sinh mi trng nng thn giai on 2012 2015.5. Bo co s 3000/BC-BNN-TCTL ngy 14/4/2015 ca B NN&PTNT v kt qu thc hin Chng trnh MTQG nc sch v v sinh mi trng nng thn nm 2014

    Chng trnh mc tiu quc gia khc phc nhim v ci thin mi trng giai on 2012 - 20156 cng t mc tiu khc phc nhim v ci thin mi trng i vi 47 lng ngh ang b nhim mi trng c bit nghim trng. Hin nay, nhiu a phng xy dng v ph duyt d n trin khai thc hin.

    Bn cnh cc vn bn, chnh sch v mi trng, trong cc chnh sch, vn bn, chng trnh quy nh v pht trin ngnh ngh nng thn nh Lut Thy sn 2003, Lut Bo v v kim dch thc vt 2013, Php lnh Ging vt nui 2004, Php lnh Th y 2004 cng c cc ni dung quy nh v BVMT.

    6. Quyt nh s 1206/Q-TTg ngy 02/9/2012 ca Th tng Chnh ph ph duyt Chng trnh mc tiu quc gia khc phc nhim v ci thin mi trng giai on 2012 2015.

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    Chng 5Quan ly moi trng nong thon

    trin khai cc chnh sch, Lut, Php lnh, rt nhiu cc vn bn di lut cng c xy dng vi cc ni dung quy nh v qun l cht thi nng nghip bao gm: kim sot nhim t hot ng trng trt, chn nui, nui trng thy sn, git m; hot ng ch bin nng lm thy sn, cc c s sn xut kinh doanh dch v ti khu vc nng

    thn hay quy nh vic kim sot nhim, qun l cht thi lng ngh Cng vi , cc quy chun k thut quc gia cho cc lnh vc th y, v sinh an ton thc phm, bo v v kim dch thc vt, quy nh v ngng cht thi nguy hi (trong bao gm cht thi nguy hi t hot ng sn xut nng nghip, lng ngh) cng c ban hnh.

    Khung 5.1. Quy nh lin quan n BVMT trong cc Lut, Php lnh ca ngnh nng nghip

    Lut Thy sniu 6 quy nh cc hnh vi b cm: X thi nc, cht thi t c s sn xut ging thu

    sn, c s nui trng thu sn, c s bo qun, ch bin thu sn m cha qua x l hoc x l cha t tiu chun quy nh vo mi trng xung quanh.

    Lut Bo v v Kim dch thc vt:iu 7 quy nh trch nhim ca B NN&PTNT trong hng dn s dng, thu hi, kho

    nghim kim nghim thuc BVTV, thu gom bao b thuc BVTV. B TN&MT hng dn tiu hy thuc, x l bao b, gi thuc BVTV sau s dng.

    Php lnh th y iu 8. Nhng hnh vi b nghim cm:Sn xut, kinh doanh, nhp khu ng vt, sn phm ng vt, nguyn liu c ngun

    gc ng vt dng sn xut thc n chn nui, thc n chn nui c ngun gc t ng vt, thuc th y, ch phm sinh hc, vi sinh vt, ha cht dng trong th y gi, khng tiu chun v sinh th y, ht hn s dng, khng r ngun gc, b cm s dng hoc khng c php lu hnh ti Vit Nam;

    Vt xc ng vt gy ly lan dch bnh cho ng vt, cho ngi;Vn chuyn tri php ng vt mc bnh, sn phm ng vt mang mm bnh truyn

    nhim nguy him t a phng ny n a phng khc.

    iu 12. iu kin v sinh th y trong chn nui:

    Chung tri, ni chn nui khc phi c v sinh, kh trng tiu c, dit mm bnh, cc loi ng vt trung gian truyn bnh theo ch nh k v sau mi t nui.

    Khu vc chn nui phi c ni x l cht thi, ni nui cch ly ng vt, ni v sinh, kh trng tiu c cho dng c chn nui, ni m khm, x l xc ng vt.

    Php lnh ging vt nui

    iu 19 yu cu c s sn xut, kinh doanh ging vt nui phi m bo tiu chun v sinh th y v BVMT.

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    cp a phng cng ch n vic ban hnh cc vn bn lin quan nhm c th ha cc ng li, chnh sch ca ng v Chnh ph a phng mnh. Mt s a phng xy dng n bo v v ci thin mi trng nng thn nh Thi Nguyn, Bc Giang, Bnh Phc, Vnh Long Cn c theo tnh hnh thc t v nh hng pht trin nng thn ca tng a phng, cc mc tiu v chng trnh, d n u tin c xy dng.

    i vi cc hot ng pht trin nng nghip nng thn, cc a phng cng xy dng cc vn bn hng dn, yu cu trin khai thc hin an ton v sinh thc phm, kim dch trong hot ng nui trng thy sn, chn nui, git m gia sc gia cm, vn s dng thuc, ha cht BVTV Mt ni dung cng v ang c hu ht cc a phng t chc trin khai thc hin theo ng l trnh ca Chng trnh mc tiu quc gia l vic trin khai nhm tiu ch v mi trng trong Chng trnh nng thn mi cho cc x trn a bn tnh.

    5.1.2. Nhng tn ti v thch thc

    H thng chnh sch, vn bn v qun l v BVMT nng nghip, nng thn c ban hnh, nhng vn cn mt s hn ch, bt cp khin cho cng tc qun l cng nh trin khai thc hin BVMT nng thn gp nhiu kh khn.

    Cha y v thiu tnh ng bTrong nhng nm qua, Lut Bo v

    mi trng l vn bn quy phm php lut cao nht trong lnh vc mi trng. Lut BVMT nm 2014 c nhng iu khon ring (iu 69, 70) v BVMT nng thn v mt s iu khon khc lin quan trc tip hoc gin tip (iu 71, 78, 80, 82, 83).

    Tuy nhin, cho n nay, vn cha c mt vn bn chuyn bit quy nh mt cch h thng vn qun l v BVMT nng thn, cc quy nh cn nm phn tn nhiu lnh vc, thiu tnh gn kt, nhiu ni dung cn b b ng. Trong cc vn bn di lut cng vn cn thiu cc ni dung hng dn thi hnh i vi vn BVMT nng thn.

    Khung 5.2. Cc chng trnh, d n u tin thuc n bo v v ci thin

    mi trng nng nghip nng thn n nm 2020 trn a bn tnh Thi Nguyn

    Chng trnh gn kt bo v mi trng vo quy hoch pht trin KT-XH vng nng nghip - nng thn.

    Chng trnh tng cng qun l, x l cht thi nng nghip - nng thn.

    Chng trnh nng cp v xy dng mi cc cng trnh BVMT nng nghip - nng thn.

    Chng trnh BVMT cc lng ngh.Chng trnh qun l ha cht

    BVTV v sn xut nng phm an ton.Chng trnh tng cng nng lc

    qun l nh nc v mi trng nng nghip - nng thn.

    Chng trnh nng cao nhn thc cng ng v bo v ti nguyn, mi trng, nng nghip - nng thn.

    Trong mi chng trnh s c nhiu nhm d n, nhim v. Chi tit cc nhim v/d n c quy nh c th trong n.

    Trch: Quyt nh s 635/Q-UBND

    ngy 03/4/2013 ca UBND tnh Thi Nguyn.

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    Chng 5Quan ly moi trng nong thon

    Theo quy nh ca Lut Bo v mi trng 2005, tiu chun mi trng i vi cht thi, c bit l nc thi v kh thi ch p dng vi cc c s sn xut, kinh doanh vi quy m ln m khng ph hp vi cc c s sn xut, kinh doanh vi quy m nh v quy m h gia nh trong cc lng ngh hoc nm xen k trong khu dn c. Chnh v vy, vic thanh tra, kim tra cng nh xc nh mc nhim i vi cc i tng ny hu nh cha th trin khai. Vn ny vn tip tc tn ti trong quy nh ca Lut BVMT 2014.

    Cho n nay, vn cn thiu cc quy nh v vic qun l, x l cht thi (nc thi, cht thi rn) i vi khu vc nng thn; trch nhim v phn cp trong qun l mi trng nng thn; vn thu ph v l ph trong qun l cht thi nng nghip, lng ngh; thiu cc tiu chun, quy chun v mi trng p dng cho khu vc nng thn...

    Thiu tnh kh thiMt s quy nh php lut c lin

    quan n BVMT khu vc nng thn khng th p dng trong thc t hoc p dng khng hiu qu. in hnh nh ni dung v qun l CTR, Ngh nh s 59/2007/

    N-CP7 v qun l cht thi rn p dng cho c khu vc th v nng thn vi mc tiu phn loi CTR ti ngun. Tuy nh