CHRISTIANITY. 1. Christianity and Judaism a. Christianity- a religion that developed based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth b. Judaism in the Roman.

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  • 1. Christianity and Judaism a. Christianity- a religion that developed based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth b. Judaism in the Roman World i. Judea was conquered by the Rome in 63 B.C. ii. Jews had to pay a tribute to Rome but were allowed to keep practicing their religion so long as they maintained civic order and paid their tribute iii. Rome appointed a new ruler for the region
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  • c. Reactions to Roman Rule i. Zealots 1. Wanted Jews to revolt against Rome and drive them out of Judea 2. Led a revolt a. Result i. Rome sacked Jerusalem ii. Destroyed 2 nd temple 3. Will revolt again resulting in all Jews being expelled from Jerusalem
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  • d. Messianic Prophecies i. Messiah 1. Messiah is the spiritual leader who would restore the ancient kingdom and bring peace to the world
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  • 2. Jesus of Nazareth a. Life i. Almost all we know about him comes from the 4 gospels of the New Testament ii. Born in Bethlehem iii. Learned carpentry and also studied the Jewish prophets iv. Instructed people to repent and seek Gods forgiveness
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  • v. Two basic beliefs 1. Love God above all else 2. Love others as you love yourself vi. Popular with the people but feared by the authorities vii. Arrested, tried and sentenced to death
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  • b. Death and Resurrection i. Rose from the grave after his death ii. Spent 40 days teaching his disciples then ascended into heaven 1. Followers believe that this revealed that Jesus was the Messiah
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  • 3. Spread of Christianity a. Apostle i. 12 disciples that Jesus had chosen ii. Earliest missionaries b. Paul of Tarsus i. Name was Saul ii. Missionary to the Gentiles (non-Jews) iii. Emphasized doctrines that helped distinguish Christianity from Judaism
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  • c. Persecution i. Local leaders were afraid of an uprising from Christians ii. Martyrs 1. People who died for the faith
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  • d. Imperial Approval i. Constantine 1. Converted in early 300s 2. Issued Edict of Milan a. Made Christianity legal within the Empire b. Did not ban practice of other religions
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  • 4. Early Christian Church a. Development of Ceremonies i. Eucharist 1. Held in memory of Jesus last supper with disciples ii. Practiced baptism
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  • b. Church Leaders i. Priests 1. Seen to have same authority as the apostles ii. Bishops 1. Oversaw church affairs in most cities 2. Had authority over the priests within those cities
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  • iii. Pope 1. Many believe that Peter founded the Roman church and was its first bishop 2. Popes are seen as the heirs of Peter


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