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    Ad Hoc Networks

    Cholatip YawutFaculty of Information Technology

    King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok

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    IEFT MANET Working Group

    Goals standardize an interdomain unicast (IP) routing protocol

    define modes of efficient operation

    support both static and dynamic topologies

    A dozen candidate routing protocols have been proposed

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    Routing

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    Ants Searching for Food

    from Prof. Yu-Chee Tsengs slides

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    Routing (Antsscenario)

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    Three Main Issues in AntsLife

    Route Discovery: searching for the places with food

    Packet Forwarding:

    delivering foods back home

    Route Maintenance: when foods move to new place

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    Introduction

    Routing Protocol for

    MANET

    Table-Driven/

    Proactive

    Hybrid

    Distance

    Vector

    Link-

    State

    ZRP DSR

    AODV

    TORA

    LANMAR

    CEDAR

    DSDV OLSR

    TBRPFFSR

    STAR

    MANET: Mobile Ad hoc Network

    (IETF working group)

    On-Demand-driven/Reactive

    Clusterbased/Hierarchical

    Ref: Optimized Link State Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc NetworksJacquet, p and park gi won

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    Reactive versus Proactive routing approach

    Proactive Routing Protocols Periodic exchange of control messages

    + immediately provide the required routes when needed

    - Larger signalling traffic and power consumption.

    Reactive Routing Protocols

    Attempts to discover routes only on-demandby flooding

    + Smaller signalling traffic and power consumption.

    - A long delay for application when no route to the destinationavailable

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    Routing Protocols

    Proactive (Global/Table Driven) route determination at startup

    maintain using periodic update

    Reactive (On-demand) route determination as needed

    route discovery process

    Hybrid combination of proactive and reactive

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    Proactive Destination-sequenced distance vector (DSDV) Wireless routing protocol (WRP)

    Global state routing (GSR)

    Fisheye state routing (FSR)

    Source-tree adaptive routing (STAR)

    Distance routing algorithm for mobility (DREAM)

    Cluster-head gateway switch routing (CGSR)

    OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing)

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    Reactive Associativity-base routing (ABR) Dynamic source routing (DSR)

    Ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV)

    Temporally ordered routing algorithm (TORA)

    Routing on-demand acyclic multi-path (ROAM)

    Light-weight mobile routing (LMR)

    Signal stability adaptive (SSA)

    Cluster-based routing protocol (CBRP)

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    Hybrid Zone routing protocol (ZRP) Zone-based hierarchical link state (ZHLS)

    Distributed spanning trees (DST)

    Distributed dynamic routing (DDR) Scalable location update routing pro. (SLURP)

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    Flooding

    Simplest of all routing protocols

    Send all info to everybody

    If data not for you, send to all neighbors

    Robust

    destination is guaranteed to receive data

    Resource Intensive

    unnecessary traffic

    load increases, network performance drops quickly

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    Routing Examples Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) Cluster Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR)

    Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) Location-Aided Routing (LAR) Distance Routing effect Algorithm for mobility (DREAM)

    Power-Aware Routing (PAR)

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    Destination Sequenced Distance Vector

    (DSDV)

    Table-driven Based on the distributed Bellman-Ford routing algorith

    m

    Each node maintains a routing table

    Routing hops to each destination Sequence number

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    DSDV

    Problem a lot of control traffic in the network

    Solution: two types of route update packets full dump (All available routing info)

    incremental (Only changed info)

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    Cluster Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR)

    Table-driven for inter-cluster routing Uses DSDV for intra-cluster routing

    M2

    C3

    C2

    C1

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    Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV)

    On-demand driven Nodes that are not on the selected path do not

    maintain routing information

    Route discovery source broadcasts a route request packet (RREQ)

    destination (or intermediate node with fresh enou

    ghroute to destination) replies a route reply pack

    et (RREP)

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    AODV

    N2

    N4

    N1

    N3

    N5

    N6

    N7

    N8

    Source

    Destination

    N2

    N4N1

    N3

    N5

    N6

    N7

    N8

    Source

    Destination

    RREQ

    RREP

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    AODV

    Problem a node along the route moves

    Solution

    upstream neighbor notices the move

    propagates a link failure notification message to each of its active upstream neighbors

    source receives the message and re-initiate route discovery

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    Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)

    On-demand driven Based on the concept of source routing

    Required to maintain route caches

    Two major phases

    Route discovery (flooding)

    Route maintenance

    A route error packet

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    DSR

    N2

    N4N1

    N3

    N5

    N6

    N7

    N8

    N1

    N1

    N1-N2

    N1-N3-N4

    N1-N3-N4

    N1-N3-N4-N7

    N1-N3-N4-N6N1-N3

    N1-N3-N4

    N1-N2-N5

    N2

    N4N1

    N3

    N5

    N6

    N7

    N8N1-N2-N5-N

    8

    N1-N2-N5-N

    8

    N1-N2-N5-N

    8

    Route Discovery

    Route Reply

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    Modified DSR

    Route information determined by the current networkconditions

    number of hops

    congestion

    node energy

    Other considerations

    fairness

    number of route requests

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    Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

    Hybrid protocol On-demand

    Proactive

    ZRP has three sub-protocols

    Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP) Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP)

    Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP)

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    Zone Radius = r Hops

    Zone of Node Y

    Node X

    Zone of Node XNode ZZone of Node Z

    Border Node

    Border Node

    Bordercasting

    Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

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    Location-Aided Routing (LAR)

    Location information via GPS

    Shortcoming (maybe not anymore 2005)

    GPS availability is not yet worldwide

    Position information come with deviation

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    Location-Aided Routing (LAR)

    Each node knows its location in every moment Using location information for route discovery

    Routing is done using the last known location + an assumption

    Route discovery is initiated when: S doesnt know a route to D Previous route from S to D is broken

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    LAR - Definitions

    Expected Zone S knows the location L of D in t0

    Current time t1

    The location of D in t1 is the expected zone

    Request Zone Flood with a modification

    Node S defines a request zone for the route request

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    LAR

    source(Xs,Ys)

    Request ZoneExpected Zone (Xd+R, Yd+R)

    R

    Destination (Xd,Yd)

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    Distance Routing effect Algorithm for

    mobility (DREAM)

    Position-based Each node

    maintains a position database

    regularly floods packets to update the position

    Temporal resolution

    Spatial resolution

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    Restricted Directional Flooding

    Distance Routing effect Algorithm for mobility(DREAM) Sender will forward the packet to all one-hop neigh

    bors that lie in the direction of destination

    Expected region is a circle around the position of destination as it is known to source

    The radius r of the expected region is set to (t1-t0)*Vmax, where t1 i