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<ul><li><p>CRC PR ESSBoca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.</p><p>Cheese Rheolog yand Texture</p><p>Sundaram GunasekaranM. Mehmet Ak</p><p> 2003 by CRC Press LLC</p></li><li><p>This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted materialis quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonableefforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the authors and the publisher cannotassume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.</p><p>Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronicor mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage orretrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.</p><p>The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, forcreating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLCfor such copying.</p><p>Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. </p><p>Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and areused only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.</p><p>Visit the CRC Press Web site at</p><p> 2003 by CRC Press LLC </p><p>No claim to original U.S. Government worksInternational Standard Book Number 1-58716-021-8</p><p>Library of Congress Card Number 2002034861Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0</p><p>Printed on acid-free paper</p><p>Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data</p><p>Gunasekaran, Sundaram, 1957-Cheese rheology and texture / Sundaram Gunasekaran, M. Mehmet Ak.</p><p>p. cm.Includes bibliographical references (p. ).ISBN 1-58716-021-8 (alk. paper)1. CheeseTexture. I. Ak, M. Mehmet. II. Title.</p><p>TX382 .G86 2002637.3dc21 2002034861</p></li><li><p> 2003 by CRC Press LLC</p><p>Dedication</p><p>To:</p><p>My parents, Raga Palanisamy Sundaram and Kamala Sundaram, for inspiring me to always strive for excellence.</p><p>My wife, Sujatha, and children, Suvai and Suman,for their love, support, and patience.</p><p> SG</p><p>My father, Haci Ak, and mother, Zeynep Ak,for giving me the opportunities they never had.</p><p>My wife, Nese, who continuously supported my efforts and patiently endured the time I spent working on this book.My daughter, Asli, and my son, Efe, who cheered me up</p><p>in times the situation looked hopeless.</p><p> MMA</p></li><li><p> 2003 by CRC Press LLC</p><p>ForewordTwo complex scientific areas, cheese and rheology, create an exponential increasein complexity when combined. This text makes a significant contribution to anunderstanding of this complexity. It underscores limitations and considerations inevaluating and conducting research on cheese rheology, points out some importantgaps in our understanding of cheese rheology, and thoroughly reviews methods,theories, and applications of rheology in general and specifically for cheese.Rheologists will gain a better understanding of the physicochemical properties ofcheese, and cheese researchers will be exposed to the wide range of rheologicalmethods and the theoretical bases of those methods. Both groups should realizethe need for collaborative research after exposure to the individual complexities ofcheese and rheology.</p><p>The diversity of observations, and seemingly contradictory observations, on thephysical and chemical properties of cheese that appear in this text should not besurprising since many of the observations were made before instruments wereimproved and were specifically adapted to deal with unique properties of cheeses.Also, confusion resulted from: cheese scientists who used techniques inadequateto definitively measure physical properties of cheese; rheologists who chose testsamples of cheese that did not possess comparable chemical properties except forthe property to be measured; and inadequately defining the chemical properties ofcheese. The authors have discussed unique characteristics of cheese that rheologistsshould be cognizant of in designing experiments. Comments on merits and deficien-cies of wide range of rheological test methods as applied to cheese should assistcheese scientists in appropriately using the procedures. The chronology of cheeserheology research outlined in this book is encouraging as evidenced by the increasein collaborative research groups or research groups with better understanding ofboth research areas.</p><p>The physicochemical properties of cheese have always been an important com-ponent in assessing cheese quality and value. The assessment was usually done bysensory evaluation, which was quite adequate because cheese was generally con-sumed in its original state. Development of heat-processed cheese products in theearly 1900s prompted some research on the physical properties of cheese, primarilyby modifying chemical properties, however, only limited research was done onrheological properties. The last several decades have greatly changed the forms anduses of cheese in the market place. Cheese has to be sliced or shredded by high-speed cutting devices; the melt and flow properties of cheeses have to be morecarefully controlled; flavor intensities and flavor profiles have to be modified withoutadversely affecting physical properties of cheese; and cheese products must possessadequate stability, often under wide ranges of environments. This myriad of desiredproperties greatly increases the need for procedures to independently control specificproperties and the need for adequate methods to measure the properties specifically</p></li><li><p> 2003 by CRC Press LLC</p><p>being controlled. The authors of this book have facilitated attainment of these goalsby their thorough review of the present status of cheese rheology research and byproviding guidance for further research efforts.</p><p>Norman F. OlsonDepartment of Food Science and Center for Dairy Research</p><p>University of Wisconsin-Madison</p></li><li><p> 2003 by CRC Press LLC</p><p>PrefaceRheology of cheese has been studied since the early 1950s. In fact, Cheese Rheologyis the name of a chapter in the 1958 FAO Report*. Since then, many advances havetaken place both in cheese technology and rheology. As cheese became an importantpart of the diet in many parts of world, the cheese industry responded by manufac-turing new types of cheeses with varying textures to suit varied needs and to promotecheese use both as a table cheese and as an ingredient food. This flurry of newcheeses and applications and cheesemaking technologies has also brought about anacute need to characterize the rheological and textural attributes of cheeses to ensuretheir high quality. Thus, for food rheologists and food scientists, cheese is amongthe most popular subjects of study.</p><p>In this book, we have attempted to summarize the vast literature available oncheese rheology and texture. Needless to say, the sheer volume of informationavailable and the complexity of both cheese and rheology made this a particularlydifficult task. Our goal was to bring together many of the dispersed publishedinformation on cheese rheology and texture in one book to serve as a comprehensivereference source. A unique aspect of this book is that it contains detailed descriptionsof several methods to study rheology of foods in general and cheese in particular.This is to provide the interested readers the necessary basic information on manytechniques reported in the literature which often do not have adequate explanation.</p><p>Chapter 1 provides an overview of cheesemaking technology. Fundamentalrheological test methods are described in much detail in Chapter 2. This chapterwill facilitate the readers to gain a deeper understanding of the various rheologicaltest methods. The uniaxial testing, one of the most widely used classes of rheologicaland texture testing methods, is the focus of Chapter 3. The fracture mechanics arean extension of the uniaxial test methods. These are discussed in Chapter 4. InChapter 5, linear viscoelastic methods are described. This is now among the mostpopular rheological test performed on cheeses, and is also known as dynamic testing.Both the theory and applications are discussed in a manner benefiting those whoare already familiar and those who are new to the subject. Chapter 6 focuses onnonlinear viscoelasticity of cheeses. This subject has not received much attentiondue to the lack of available instrumentation and the complexity of data analysis.This chapter will be more useful to those familiar with rheological analysis than tothe casual reader. The discussion on cheese texture in Chapter 7 is limited tomechanical texture of cheese, as it is more in line with rheological measurements.Cheese meltability and stretchability, two of the most important properties of cheeseused in prepared foods, are the topics of Chapters 8 and 9. The emphasis in thesechapters is on measurement methods. The effects of various factors on cheesefunctional properties are addressed in Chapter 10.</p><p>* Kosikowski, F.V. and G. Mocquot. 1958. Advances in Cheese Technology, FAO Studies No. 38. Foodand Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.</p></li><li><p> 2003 by CRC Press LLC</p><p>Acknowledgments</p><p>We would like to acknowledge many individuals who have contributed directly orindirectly toward making this book a reality. First and foremost, we would like toexpress gratitude to Professor Norman F. Olson, who was instrumental in helpingus to initiate our first project on cheese rheology in 1989, when S.G. was a newassistant professor and M.M.A. was a graduate research assistant. Since then, withhis expert knowledge and friendly personality, Professor Olson has been a sourceof great support. Thanks are also due to Dr. Mark Johnson, Dr. Rusty Bishop, JohnJaeggi, and other past and current staff at the Wisconsin Center for Dairy Research.These people are invaluable resources for cheese research. This book draws frommuch of the research performed in S.G.s laboratory. As such, the efforts of manygraduate students and post-doctoral research associates are deeply appreciated. Theyinclude: Chyung Ay, James Colby, Kexiang Ding, Chang Hwang, Sun Young Kim,Sanghoon Ko, Gul Konuklar, Meng-I Kuo, Laura Marschoun, Kasiviswanathan Muth-ukumarappan, Hongxu Ni, Ramesh Subramanian, Salman Tariq, Deepa Venkatesan,Ya-Chun Wang, and Chenxu Yu. Thanks are also due to S.G.s colleagues, ProfessorsA. Jeffrey Giacomin and Daniel Klingenberg at the Rheology Research Center,University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Professor Karsten B. Qvist of KVL, Den-mark. Thanks to Hallie Kirschner for typing parts of the manuscript. The financialsupport of Wisconsin Milk Marketing Board and Dairy Management Inc. for manyof S.G.s projects is also deeply appreciated.</p><p>M.M.A. wishes to thank each member of his family for their full support andpatience during the writing of this book. He expresses appreciation to the following:Suat Yasa and Murat Yasa of Aromsa Limited Company, for their interest in the book;friends Elsie and Warren Sveum, Sarah and Alvaro Quinones, Mar Garcimartin-Akgul, and Arzu and Yann LeBellour for their constant encouragement; and formerstudents Filiz Lokumcu and Metin Yavuz for their valuable assistance in gatheringsome of the publications.</p><p>Sundaram GunasekaranM. Mehmet Ak</p></li><li><p> 2003 by CRC Press LLC</p><p>Table of Contents</p><p>Chapter 1 Cheesemaking An Overview</p><p>Cheese TypesCheesemaking</p><p>Milk PretreatmentCoagulationSyneresisShaping and SaltingRipeningProcess Cheese</p><p>References</p><p>Chapter 2 Fundamental Rheological MethodsDefinition of RheologyBasic Concepts</p><p>StrainStressStrain Rate</p><p>Fundamental MethodsUniaxial CompressionUniaxial TensionBending Test</p><p>Specimen with a Rectangular Cross-SectionSpecimen with a Circular Cross-Section</p><p>Torsion TestVane MethodStress-Relaxation Test</p><p>Analysis of Relaxation BehaviorCreep Test</p><p>Analysis of Creep BehaviorShear Rheometry</p><p>Sliding-Plates GeometryConcentric-Cylinders GeometryCone-and-Plate GeometryParallel-Plate GeometryCapillary Rheometry</p><p>Extensional RheometryLubricated Squeezing FlowEquations for Different Fluids in Lubricating Squeezing Flow</p><p>References</p></li><li><p> 2003 by CRC Press LLC</p><p>Chapter 3 Uniaxial Testing of Cheese</p><p>Uniaxial Compression MeasurementsStructure and Composition EffectsStress-Relaxation MeasurementsTorsion MeasurementsTension MeasurementsCreep MeasurementsBending MeasurementsVane MeasurementsShear MeasurementsLubricated Squeezing Flow MeasurementsReferences</p><p>Chapter 4 Fracture Properties of CheeseFracture MechanicsBrittle FractureGriffith CriterionDetermination of KIFracture Tests on Cheese</p><p>Notch TestsCutting, Slicing, and ShreddingCutting with Wire and BladeEye/Slit Formation and GrowthReferences</p><p>Chapter 5 Linear Viscoelasticity of CheeseMathematical Relations in Linear ViscoelasticityTypes of SAOS Measurements</p><p>Strain (or Stress) SweepFrequency SweepTemperature SweepTime Sweep</p><p>TimeTemperature SuperpositionApplication of SAOS in Cheese Rheology</p><p>Linear Viscoelastic Region of CheesesCheddar CheeseGouda CheeseMozzarella CheeseMozzarella: TimeTemperature Superposition ExampleFeta CheeseImitation CheeseQuarg CheeseProcessed Cheese</p><p>CoxMerz RuleReferences</p></li><li><p> 2003 by CRC Press LLC</p><p>Chapter 6 Nonlinear Viscoelasticity of Cheese</p><p>Pipkin DiagramSliding Plate RheometerLarge Amplitude Oscillatory Shear FlowSpectral AnalysisDiscrete Fourier TransformDetermining Material PropertiesAmplitude SpectrumStressShear Rate LoopsEffect of Wall SlipConstitutive Model for CheeseRelaxation Modulus Obtained from SAOSRelaxation Modulus Conforming to LAOSReferences</p><p>Chapter 7 Cheese TextureTexture Development in Cheese</p><p>Cheese Manufacturing Factors that Affect TextureTextural Changes during Storage</p><p>Measurement of TextureTexture Profile AnalysisTPA Testing of Cheese</p><p>Uniaxial Tests for Cheese Texture MeasurementCompression TestWedge Fracture Test</p><p>Torsion Test and Vane RheometryTexture Map</p><p>Dynamic TestsEmpirical Tests</p><p>CrumblinessCone PenetrometerStringiness</p><p>References</p><p>Chapter 8 Measuring Cheese Melt and Flow PropertiesMeltabilityEmpirical TestsObjective Tests</p><p>Steady Shear ViscometryCapillary RheometrySqueeze-Flow RheometryUW MeltmeterViscoelasticity Index for Cheese MeltabilityDynamic Shear RheometryHelical Viscometry</p></li><li><p> 2003 by CRC Press LLC</p><p>Cheese Melt Profile MeasurementUW Melt ProfilerDetermination of Melt Profile Parameters</p><p>Graphical MethodModeling Melt Profile</p><p>Constant Temperature TestTransient Temperature Test</p><p>Conduction HeatingReferences</p><p>Chapter 9 Measuring Cheese Stretchability</p><p>Empirical MethodsInstrumented MethodsVertical ElongationHorizontal ExtensionCompression TestsHelical ViscometryFiber-Spinning TechniqueThe Weissenberg EffectReferences</p><p>Chapter 10 Factors Affecting Functional Properties of Cheese</p><p>Properties of MilkCheesemaking Procedures</p><p>Addition of Starter Culture and CoagulantsCurd HandlingCooking, Stretching, and Cooling</p><p>Cheese CompositionMoisture ContentFat ContentSalt ContentpH</p><p>Post-Manufacturing ProcessesAging/RipeningFreezing and Frozen StorageHeat ProcessingOther Factors</p><p>References</p></li><li><p>Cheesemaking An Overview</p><p>Cheese is one of the first and...</p></li></ul>