Chaudhary v Chaudhary

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    *19 Chaudhary v Chaudhary Court of Appeal

    31 July 1984

    [1985] 2 W.L.R. 350 [1985] Fam. 19

    Cumming-Bruce , Oliver L.JJ. an Balcom!e J.

    "oo J. 1984 July 1#, 1$% 31

    1983 &e!. '1, ''% (arc) 3, 4% (ay 13 Husband and Wife—Divorce—Foreign decree, recognition of—Talaq divorce—Pakistan

    nationals acquiring domicile of choice in England—Husband travelling to Kashmir to  ronounce talaq—Talaq ronounced in Kashmir having legal effect in Pakistan—

    Whether talaq !"udicial or other roceedings! recognised in #nited Kingdom—Whether  recognition to be refused as contrar$ to ublic olic$— %ecognition of Divorces and

    &egal 'earations (ct )*+) c- ./0, ss- 1a0, 210b0 as amended b$ Domicile and 3atrimonial Proceedings (ct )*+/ c- 4.0, ss- 140, ).10 0

    *)e partie+, )o ere national+ of ai+tan ere marrie in /a+)mir in 1904 an co)a!ite t)ere until 19#3 )en t)e )u+!an came to nglan leaving t)e ife an

    c)ilren in /a+)mir. *)e )u+!an +ettle in nglan )ere )e foun +ecureemployment an +u!+e2uently forme a relation+)ip it) anot)er oman, . n 19#$ t)e )u+!an an . ent t)roug) a ceremony of marriage at a regi+ter office in

    Lonon an in 19#9 t)ey ent t)roug) a furt)er ceremony of marriage accoring to

    (u+lim rite+ in Beirut. *)e ife arrive in nglan in 19$0 !ut returne to /a+)mir it)in a fortnig)t ue to ome+tic i+)armony. n 19$# t)e )u+!an pronounce oral

    tala2 t)ree time+ !efore itne++e+ at a mo+2ue in Lonon an notifie t)e ife. *)e ife returne to nglan in 19$$. n 19$8 t)e )u+!an ent to /a+)mir an again

    pronounce oral tala2 t)ree time+ !efore itne++e+, t)at !eing in+tantly effective a+ a final ivorce uner t)e la of ai+tan +ince t)e (u+lim &amily La+ Orinance 19#1

    i not apply to /a+)mir. n 1985 Balcom!e J. eclare t)e regi+ter office ceremony of  marriage !eteen t)e )u+!an an . voi an !igamou+ an mae a ecree

    a!+olute of nullity. *)e ife petitione t)e ngli+) court+ for ivorce on t)e groun of

    t)e )u+!an6+ aultery it) . *)e )u+!an pre+ente a petition for a eclaration t)at t)e marriage )a !een lafully i++olve prior to t)e ife6+ petition, eit)er !y t)e tala2 of 19$# or !y t)e +econ tala2 of 19$8. "oo J. )el t)at t)e tala2 of 19$#

    coul not !e recogni+e !ecau+e !y t)at ate t)e )u+!an )a ac2uire a omicile of c)oice in nglan an in any event uner +ection 1#71 of t)e omicile an

    (atrimonial roceeing+ Act 19$3 no proceeing+ in t)e :nite /ingom coul valily i++olve a marriage unle++ in+titute in a court of la% t)at t)e tala2 of 19$8 )ic)

    a+ a ;!are; tala2 involving merely t)e )u+!an6+ act coul not !e regare a+ ;eparation+ Act 19$1 @ -

    el, i+mi++ing t)e appeal, 71 t)at, alt)oug) t)e =ecognition of ivorce+ an Legal >eparation+ Act 19$1 )a

    !een amene !y t)e omicile an (atrimonial roceeing+ Act 19$3 , t)e provi+ion+ of t)e Act of 19$3 )a not affecte t)e con+truction of ;

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    t)at a+ in+ufficient to con+titute ;ot)er proceeing+; recogni+e !y t)e court+ uner +ection ' of t)e Act of 19$1 a+ i++olving t)e partie+6 marriage 7po+t, pp. 38A-C, 39-

    &, 45 - 41C,  - 4', 43A-, 4#C-, -, 48A-B. uai v. uai D1985E A.C. $44 , .L.7. con+iere.

    7' *)at, +ince !ot) partie+ )a !y c)oice !ecome omicile in nglan, t)e only rea+on t)at t)e )u+!an )a travelle to /a+)mir to pronounce t)e tala2 mu+t )ave

    !een to tae avantage of t)e t)en e?i+ting la+ of t)e partie+6 omicile )ere!y a ecree grante in /a+)mir oul avoi )i+ )aving to mae any financial provi+ion for

    t)e ife% t)at, accoringly, t)e ecretary of >tate for t)e ome epartment, ? parte )ulam &atima D1980E

    .B. 195% D1984E 3 ".L.=. #09% D1984E ' All .=. 408, C.A. .

    • =u++ 7or+e. effer+ v. =u++ 7=u++ or+e. e "aele intervening D19#4E . 310%

    D19#'E 3 ".L.=. 935% D19#3E 3 All .=. 193, C.A. .

    *21

    • >)arif v. >)arif 71985 15 &am. La '1#

    • Faranan v. Faranan 719#4 158 >.J. #93

    • Fi+aling)am v. Fi+aling)am 719$9 1 &.L.=. 10% 1'3 >.J. #54, C.A. .

    • Gaal v. Gaal 7198' 4 &.L.=. '84

    Ho aitional ca+e+ ere cite in argument in t)e Court of Appeal.

    *)e folloing ca+e+ are referre to in t)e

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    • Joyce v. Joyce an O6are D19$9E &am. 93 % D19$9E ' ".L.=. $$5% D19$9E ' All

    .=. 10#

    • Hemarc) v. Hemarc) D19$8E &am. $9% D19$$E 3 ".L.=. 83'% D19$8E 1 All

    .=. 1

    • uai v. uai D1985E A.C. $44% D19$9E 3 ".L.=. 833% D19$9E 3 All .=. 89$,

    .L.7. .

    • ure+)i v. ure+)i D19$'E &am. 1$3% D19$1E ' ".L.=. 018% D19$1E 1 All .=.

    3'0

    • :ny v. :ny 718#9 L.=. 1 >c. I iv. 441, .L.7>c. .

    *)e folloing aitional ca+e+ ere cite in argument !efore "oo [email protected]

    • ornett v. ornett D19$1E . '00% D19$1E ' ".L.=. 181% D19$1E 1 All .=. 98

    • gra v. gra D1901E . 454

    • Lee v. Lau D19#$E . 14% D19#4E 3 ".L.=. $05% D19#4E ' All .=. '48

    • (a)er v. (a)er D1901E . 34'% D1901E ' All .=. 3$

    • (eyer, n re D19$1E . '98% D19$1E ' ".L.=. 451% D19$1E 1 All .=. 3$8

    • (itfor v. (itfor an Fon /u)lmann D19'3E . 135

    • =atanac)ai v. =atanac)ai, *)e *ime+, 3 June 19#5

    • =eg. v. =egi+trar eneral of Birt)+, eat)+ an (arriage+, ? parte (in)a+

    D19$$E .B. 1% D19$#E ' ".L.=. 4$3% D19$#E ' All .=. '4#, .C. .

    • >)arif v. >)arif 71985 15 &am. La '1#

    • Faranan v. Faranan 719#4 158 >.J. #93

    • Gaal v. Gaal 7198' 4 &.L.=. '84

    PETITIONS *)e ife, Bi!i >aira C)au)ary, marrie t)e )u+!an, /)an (o)amme C)au)ary, on 4 ecem!er 1904 in /a+)mir, ai+tan. By )er petition ate '# (arc) 19$9, +)e

    +oug)t t)e i++olution of t)at marriage on t)e groun of t)e )u+!an6+ aultery it) amia Begum, non a+ >ue C)au)ary. *)e )u+!an, !y )i+ an+er, allege t)at,

    +ince t)e partie+ )a !een valily ivorce !efore t)e ate of t)e petition, t)e court

    )a no )ep)er6+ Bu+) (o+2ue, Lonon, or !y a talanama mae on 1' June 19$8 at (uaffara!a, Aa /a+)mir,

    ai+tan% an )e +oug)t a eclaration t)at t)e marriage )a !een i++olve !y eit)er t)e fir+t or +econ talanama.

    *22

    *)e fact+ are +tate in t)e

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    • aviner Lac))ar for t)e ife.

    • "alter Aylen .C. for t)e )u+!an.

    5ur- adv- vult-

    13 'ay 1983. WOO( ).rea t)e folloing ue C)au)ary 7 +)all refer to )er a+ amia,

    in )ic) t)e ife +ee+ cu+toy of t)e c)ilren an t)e u+ual financial ancillary relief. *)e +econ i+ a petition file !y t)e )u+!an on 19 Octo!er 198' )ic), it) t)e

    ife6+ an+er to it, )a+ +ince !een amene an )ic) +ee+ a eclaration t)at t)e marriage !eteen t)e )u+!an an t)e ife, ate 4 ecem!er 1904, )a !een

    i++olve prior to t)e ife6+ petition eit)er !y an oral tala2 of '9 June 19$# or !y a +econ oral tala2 of 1' (ay 19$8. t i+ fair to point out t)at t)e )u+!an6+ ca+e a+

    partially put forar in )i+ an+er to t)e ife6+ petition, )ic) an+er a+ ate $ ecem!er 19$9. By agreement t)e )u+!an6+ petition )a+ !een )ear fir+t, a+ )i+

    aultery a+ amitte an a ecree ni+i on t)e ife6+ petition oul follo if t)e )u+!an i not +uccee in )i+ prayer for a eclaration. *)ere are four c)ilren of t)i+

    marriage, t)e ele+t of )om i+ /)ur+)i, )o i+ in )i+ mi-'5+% )aala, !orn on '$ January 19#1, no ''% /aleem, !orn on '8 Augu+t 19#' - no '5% an >)amin, !orn

    on 11 Octo!er 19#3 - no 19. /aleem, unfortunately, i+ +everely )anicappe. e )a+ impaire +ig)t an )earing, an i+ not in a goo p)y+ical or mental conition. e can

    al, !ut nee+ to !e re++e an al+o nee+ a great eal of aily attention. *)e )u+!an i+ no age 05 an t)e ife 4#. *)ey are, in fact, fir+t cou+in+ an come

    from t)e +ame village in /a+)mir in ai+tan. *)ey are !ot) ai+tan national+. >)e i+

    illiterate. amia come+ from (alay+ia. *)e po+ition toay i+ t)at t)e )u+!an an amia live at $, >tulan >treet, Lonon,

    ".#, a property in )i+ name an no ort) 35,555. "it) t)em live )aala, )o i+

    taing A level+ in !io-c)emi+try at aington College, an for )om t)e )u+!an

    pay+ $55 per annum in college fee+. :ntil fairly recently >)amin a+ al+o living it) t)em. amia )

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