Chara corallina

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  • 8/14/2019 Chara corallina



    Uday Bhan Singh1*, R.K. Thakur2,Ravih !"r#a$, A.S. A%LU&ALIA1


    1Laboratory of Algal Biology and Diversity, Department of Botany, Panjab University,

    Chandigarh-16 1!, "ndia

    #Department of $oology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-16 1!, "ndia

    %Department of Botany, University of &ajasthan, 'aip(r-%# !, "ndia

    ABSTRA'T ( )hyi+h"#ia- ana-yi + /h" 0+nd a/"r u00+r/ing gr+/h + Chara

    corallinaand + /h+" gr+n in di"r"n/ u-/ur" #"dia in /h" -a+ra/+ry +ndi/i+n hav"

    ""n arri"d +u/. Th" 0hyi+h"#ia- 0ara#"/"r + /h" a/"r + Na0-i +r"/ and ).N.

    3"hra B+/ania- 4ard"n h+ /ha/ Chara corallinar"5uir" -" a#+un/ + nu/ri"n/ and

    /h" -"v"- + 0+--u/i+n i 5ui/" -+ a i "vid"n/ r+# /h" da/a and /andard. Th" a/"r i

    -"ar "n+ugh /+ a--+ 0"n"/ra/i+n + viii-i/y /+ i/ +//+#. Na0-i +r"/ and ).N. 3"hra

    B+/ania- 4ard"n -ak rih div"ri/y hih #ay " a//riu/"d /+ +#" h"#ia- r"-"a"d

    y Chara corallina. In -a+ra/+ry u-/ur", i/ i +und /ha/ Chara corallina an " gr+n in

    a-- /hr"" u-/ur" #"dia, viz., A--"n and Arn+n6 #"diu# , 'hu17 #"diu# and B411

    #"diu# u/ gr+/h i ""n /+ " /h" "/ in A--"n and Arn+n6 u-/ur" #"diu# in

    +#0ari+n i/h /h" +/h"r /+ u-/ur" #"dia.

    K"y +rd ( Chara, Physi)o)hemi)al parameters, Algae, *ater poll(tion+


  • 8/14/2019 Chara corallina


    Chara)ean algae are )alled stoneorts or brittleorts d(e to etensive etra)ell(lar

    )al)ifi)ation+ .he presen)e of Charophy)eae /stoneorts0 is often asso)iated ith )lean and

    rather hard ater ith a lo phosphoro(s /P0 )on)entration /ig+ 10+

    Figur" 1. Sh+ing /h" gr+/h + Chara corallina in Ba/ania- 4ard"n

    orsbergreported that sol(ble rea)tive phosphor(s /2&P0)on)entration as lo as 13 4g P

    L51 inhibited theplant groth and the sensitivity to P eplained the absen)e of )harophytes in

    very e(trophi) aters and their disappearan)e from poll(ted lo)alities 17+ Contrary to earlier

    findings, later st(dies have shon that the plant )an gro ell in ater ith a high P

    )on)entration, for eample 1+ mg P L51 #7and +8 mg P L51%7 and thedisappearan)e of the

    plant is )a(sed primarily by shading thro(ghphytoplan9ton and other algae !7+ Dense Chara

    beds in hard ater may a)t as n(trient sin9s in several ays, s()h as n(trient in)orporation in

    plant biomass, n(trient ithdraal from de)omposing detrit(s, release of allelophati)
  • 8/14/2019 Chara corallina


    )ompo(nds, red()ed sediment res(spension, slo de)omposition rate on plant senes)en)e, and

    the )o-pre)ipitation of P ith )al)ite 37+ Charophytes thrive and may dominate the vegetation in

    (npoll(ted fresh and bra)9ish aters 67+ Charophytes may also indire)tly affe)t n(trient )y)ling

    in la9es+ Utili:ation of bi)arbonate is a))ompanied by pre)ipitation of )al)ite d(ring periods of

    intensive photosynthesis, favoring immobili:ation of P by binding in the )rystal str()t(re or

    sorption on sedimenting mineral parti)les+ Charophytes are able to deliver oygen to the

    sediment, th(s potentially enhan)ing nitrifi)ation;denitrifi)ation pro)esses and preventing iron-

    bo(nd sediment phosphor(s from being released to the overlying ater+ (rthermore, dense

    Charameados restri)t sediment res(spension, )onse /asCaC?%0 of the total plant biomass dry eight has been reported@,87+

    eeping this in vie, the present investigation has been (nderta9en to assess the ater

  • 8/14/2019 Chara corallina


  • 8/14/2019 Chara corallina


    Physi)o-)hemi)al )hara)teristi)s of ater in P+E+ =ehra Botani)al Garden and Eapli

    forest ere investigated /.able 10+

    Ta-". 1. )hyi+h"#ia- 0ara#"/"r + a/"r u00+r/ing gr+/h + Chara corallina

    in ).N. 3"hra B+/ania- 4ard"n and Na0-i F+r"/, 'handigarh.

    S.N+. )ara#"/"r B+/ania- 4ard"n Na0-i F+r"/

    1 2e))hi-transparen)y /)m0 @1+%J+ 1#!+%J#+%

    # .otal Dissolved 2olid/mg;L0 #16+@J%+% #1+@J6+

    % pH @+3J+% @+@J+6

    ! .emperat(re /air0/C0 #3+%J+1@ #3+8J+83 .emperat(re /ater0/C0 #6+1J+% #6+3J+8

    6 ree C?# /mg;L0 #1+@J+8 %8+J1+13

    @ Carbonate - C?%#K /mg;L0 Absent Absent

    8 Al9alinity /mg;L0 1+@J+% 1%+6J#+6

    .otal Hardness /mg;L0 %!8+%J6+ %66+@J#+!

    1 Ca#K

    /mg;L0 11+@J+!3 11+J+%111 =g#K /mg;L0 #!6+6J3+8 #33+8J#+6

    1# Cl- /mg;L0 6!+J%+3 63+J#+6

    1% Dissolved ?# /mg;L0 #+8J1+1 #+@J#+!

    1! .otal Phosphate

    P?!#- /mg;L0

    +#3J+# +%6J+%

    13 Eitrate - E?%-/mg;L0 +1#%J+! +#1%J+6

    ?bservations of se))hi-transparen)y of to sites indi)ate that ater

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    Comparing vario(s physi)o)hemi)al parameters of st(died ater samples ith Eational

    and "nternational 2tandards, .able # 1!,13,167, reveals that all the parameters analy:ed ere

    ith the permissible limits of drin9ing ater standards+

    Ta-" 2. S/andard +r drinking a/"r

    Parameters *H? "2" "C=&

    pH 6+3-8+3 6+3-8+3 @-8+3

    .otal Al9alinity 1# - -

    .otal hardness 3 % %

    Chloride #3 #3-1 #3-1

    Eitrate 3-1 3-1 #-1

    Phosphate +1-1 +3-1 -

    B?D 3+ - -

    D? 3+ %+ -

    .D2 3 - 3All parameters are epressed in mgL-1e)ept pH

    Based on )ertain parameters, Central Poll(tion Control Board /.able%0 has )lassified fresh ater

    into five )lasses /A, B, C, D and 0 s(itable for vario(s p(rposes+ ?n the basis of this

    )lassifi)ation, the ater at ponds )o(ld be )ategori:ed as AM+ .he val(es of ater

  • 8/14/2019 Chara corallina


    pH beteen 6+3 and 8+3 Dissolved ?ygen 3mg;L or


    Bio)hemi)al ?ygen Demand 3 days #NC %mg;L or less

    Drinking a/"r +ur" a/"r

    +nv"n/i+na- /r"a/#"n/ and



    .otal Coliforms ?rganism =PE;1ml shall be 3 or


    pH beteen 6 to Dissolved ?ygen !mg;L or more

    Bio)hemi)al ?ygen Demand 3 days #NC %mg;L or less

    )r+0aga/i+n + &i-d -i" and



    pH beteen 6+3 to 8+3 Dissolved ?ygen !mg;L or more

    ree Ammonia /as E0 1+# mg;L or less

    Irriga/i+n, Indu/ria- '++-ing,

    '+n/r+--"d &a/" di0+a-


    pH betn 6+ to 8+3

    le)tri)al Cond()tivity at #3NC mi)ro mhos;)m


    2odi(m absorption &atio =a+ #6

    Boron =a+ #mg;L

    B"-+E N+/ 3""/ing A, B, ', D : E 'ri/"ria

    Central poll(tion )ontrol board /httpF;;)p)b+ni)+in;*aterO(alityOCriteria+php0

    As stated earlier, 1 )m long api)al portions of Chara corallina ere gron in % different

    media, ea)h medi(m being ino)(lated ith ten samples ea)h /ig+ #0+
  • 8/14/2019 Chara corallina


    Figur" 1. Sh+ing /h" gr+/h + Chara corallinain +-id agar #"diu#

    % repli)ates of ea)h medi(m as maintained to minimi:e the error+ "n these samples some

    profo(ndly visible observations )o(ld be made+ After ! days of )(lt(re, the older basal plant

    portion of the samples in Ch(-1 medi(m be)ame pale in )oloration /lost green )olor0 hile

    those gron in Allen and Arnons and BG-11 media retained their green )oloration /.able !0+ As

    the )(lt(re pro)eeded to the 8thday after )(lt(re /.able 30, most of the samples in Ch(-1

    medi(m ere pale yello in )olor, be)ame soft and had rotten baseI s(rvival as lo in Ch(-1

    medi(m b(t those hi)h s(rvived, attained proper length+ "n BG-11 medi(m, samples be)ame

    greenish-bron+ e of them ere seen to have deteriorated ith rotten basal portion+ B(t in

    Allen and Arnons medi(m, all samples s(rvived and ere l(sh green in )olor+ &hi:oids of abo(t

    +%-+3 )m ere also seen to have developed on all the samples+

    Ta-". ;. '+#0ari+n + /h" gr+/h ra/" + Chara corallina a/"r ; day + u-/ur" in

    di"r"n/ u-/ur" #"dia/hr+ugh r"h and dry "igh/ and di"r"n" in -"ng/h.

    )ara#"/"r Fr"h "igh/ 8g9 Dry "igh/ 8g9 L"ng/h8#9 Surviva- +u/

  • 8/14/2019 Chara corallina


    3"diu# + 17R"0-ia/" 3"an R"0-ia/" 3"an R"0-ia/" 3"an

    'hu 17









    +33 +1 1%+# 1

    +6# +1# 1#+6 1

    B4 11








    1+%! +11 1%+@ 1

    +3# +1# 1%+ 1

    A--"n and










    +3! +1% 1%+! 1

    +%@ +16 1#+8 1


  • 8/14/2019 Chara corallina


    )m ere seen to arise from all samples+ Hoever, in BG-11 medi(m, the old basal body of plant

    got deteriorated b(t the (pper portions still retained their green )oloration+

    Ta-". >. '+#0ari+n + /h" gr+/h ra/" + Chara corallina a/"r 12 day + u-/ur" in

    di"r"n/ u-/ur" #"dia/hr+ugh r"h and dry "igh/ and di"r"n" in -"ng/h.



    Fr"h "igh/ 8g9 Dry "igh/ 8g9 L"ng/h8#9 Surviva- +u/

    + 17R"0-ia/" 3"an R"0-ia/" 3"an R"0-ia/" 3"an

    'hu 17









    + +1 1!+6

    +@3 +1 1%+#

    B4 11









    +3 +1 11+# 1

    +11% +1! 1#+6 1

    A--"n and










    +68 +13 11+6 1

    +38 +13 1%+% 1


    Con)l(sions )an be made from these observations that the samples gron in Allen and

    Arnons medi(m had