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American Government and Politics: American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Citizenship Chapter 2: The American Constitution


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  • 1. Chapter 2: The American Constitution American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship

2. Learning Objectives 2 Describe the lessons the early Americans learned about establishing effective democratic government during the first decade of independence. Explain the key controversies that divided the delegates at the Constitutional Convention. Contrast the political views of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Copyright 2014 Cengage Learning 3. Learning Objectives 3 Assess the extent to which the addition of the Bill of Rights to the Constitution served the goals of both Anti-Federalists and Federalists. Evaluate whether the original Constitution was pro-slavery or antislavery.Copyright 2014 Cengage Learning 4. Introduction 4Framing the Constitution: Process took approximately 10 years Remarkably peaceful Important early lessons and experiences shaped document Other influences include political philosophers, and British constitutional and legal historyCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 5. 5The Lessons of the First Decade State Constitutions Separation of powers Bicameral legislature Weak governors Property restrictions for voting and holding officeCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 6. 6The Lessons of the First Decade Articles of Confederation First national constitution Weak national government Key provisions: State sovereignty State equality Limited powers Supermajority requirement Amendments Copyright 2014 Cengage Learning 7. 7The Lessons of the First Decade Weaknesses of the National Government Underfunded Unequipped army Unable to execute unified foreign policy Poor treatment of some Loyalists Unable to gather quorum to do businessConflicts between the States Economic Territorial Copyright 2014 Cengage Learning 8. 8The Lessons of the First Decade Problems within the States: Shayss Rebellion Deficiencies of state laws Rage for paper money Questions about majority rule Copyright 2014 Cengage Learning 9. 9The Lessons of the First Decade The Road to Philadelphia Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation apparent in early days of the document Annapolis Convention (1786) Delegates urged Congress to call constitutional convention Congress asks states to appoint delegatesCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 10. The Constitutional Convention 10May 25, 1787 Washington: presiding officer of Constitutional Convention Many prominent political figures absent James Madison, James Wilson and Gouverneur Morris critical in drafting ConstitutionCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 11. 11Forms of Government Throughout the World in 1790Copyright 2014 Cengage Learning 12. The Constitutional Convention 12The Nationalists Set the Agenda: The Virginia Plan Three independent branches Representation based on state population Rejected state-based Articles of Confederation and proposed entirely new governmentCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 13. The Constitutional Convention 13The Small States Counterattack: The New Jersey Plan Increase powers of national government Not willing to alter basic structure of Congress One state, one vote Delegates chosen by state legislatures Hamiltons speech Life terms for chief executive Appointment by national government of state governors Copyright 2014 Cengage Learning 14. The Constitutional Convention 14The Great Compromise Representation in House based on state population Each state has equal representation in Senate Bills for raising and spending money must originate in the House National and federal principlesCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 15. The Constitutional Convention 15Completing the Constitution Committee of Detail drafts Constitution Vests Congress with new powers Authorizes Congress to make all necessary and proper laws New restrictions on state powerCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 16. The Constitutional Convention 16Completing the Constitution (continued) Establishes presidency Makes independent of legislature Electoral College Establishes bicameral Congress National judiciary Federal judges serve lifetime terms Supreme CourtCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 17. The Constitutional Convention 17Final Form Committee of Style revises draft Adds three requirements for oaths (public promises) Sent to states for ratificationCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 18. Ratifying the Constitution 18The Course of Ratification Required approval from nine state ratifying conventions (not all states) Combined public opinion and deliberation Able leaders represent both sides of debateCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 19. Ratifying the Constitution 19Debating the Constitution Federalists Supported ratifying Constitution Wanted strong national government Federalist Papers Argued that large republics use representation and protect minority interestsCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 20. Ratifying the Constitution 20Debating the Constitution Anti-Federalists Opposed ratifying the Constitution Concerned about national government having too much power Denounced necessity of standing army Not enough emphasis on civic virtue and accountabilityCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 21. 21Methods for Amending the ConstitutionCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 22. Adding a Bill of Rights 22Protecting Rights in the Original Constitution Writ of habeas corpus Prohibitions on bills of attainder Ex post facto lawsCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 23. Adding a Bill of Rights 23Fashioning the Bill of Rights Many proposed by states Thomas Jefferson supported Bill of Rights Federalists agree to add, as long as does not limit or alter national government Madison drafts Bill of RightsCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 24. Adding a Bill of Rights 24Ratifying the Bill of Rights Some disagreement, but state legislatures ratified10 of 12 proposed amendments Bill of Rights added to Constitution Fundamental rights enumerated Little structural change or limits on national government Ended organized opposition to ConstitutionCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 25. Slavery and the Constitution 25Debating Slavery at the Constitutional Convention Three contentious issues: Counting slaves to determine population for representation Allowing importation of slaves into U.S. Obligating states to return runaway slavesCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning 26. Slavery and the Constitution 26The Compromises of the Constitution Constitution does not use words slave or slavery Three-fifths clause Importation of slaves clause Fugitive slave clause But, avoided suggestion in Constitution that slavery was moral or just Copyright 2014 Cengage Learning 27. 27The Constitution and Deliberative Democracy John Adams stated that the effort to draft Constitution was the greatest single effort of national deliberation that the world has ever seen. Established foundation for future deliberations about national policyCopyright 2014 Cengage Learning