Chapter VI: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS ... C.M.Sedani Page 1 Chapter VI: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS,

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  • C.M.Sedani Page 1

    Chapter VI: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS,

    LIMITATION OF STUDY AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

    “Any thing experienced in terms of general cause and specific effect must be an illusion, because such causes and effect exists only relative to each other. Indeed, whatever has a beginning must have either real or unreal end.” - Swami Prabhupada, Shrimad Bhagavatam, (224, pp. 124) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    This research examines how a firm should select and adopt “good quality

    practices” to improve the manufacturing performance in SMEs as well as large

    enterprises. Currently, no framework or model is available, which integrates ISO

    9000, TQM and Quality Awards, and decisions regarding quality performance

    initiatives are based on ambiguous judgements of quality managers. In past,

    Research has had little to offer the manager in this regard. This research aimed

    to fill this gap by exploring quality practices and performance measures and

    their assessment through a proposed model for “Good quality practices and

    Performance”. The study also provides the relationship of different performance

    measures with quality practices, to indicate the difference between SMEs and

    large enterprise.

    This chapter summarises and discusses the knowledge gained from this

    research and identifies areas for further research. Section 6.1 presents the

    conclusion and summary of key evidence of research findings of previous

    chapter. Section 6.2 suggests several recommendations based on empirical

    examination of this research in the areas of QM and adoption of initiatives for

    quality practitioners. Section 6.3 presents the limitations of this research, and

    finally section 6.4 suggests areas of future research. The thesis ends with the

    conclusion.

    6.1 Summary of Research findings of this study

    Studies on service quality assessment have attracted the attention of

    researchers since 1970s. The researchers mainly focus on issues of measuring

    performance through several manufacturing and quality inputs. However, the

    measurement of performance is largely influenced by the expectations and

  • C.M.Sedani Page 2

    perceptions of customers because they are directly utilising the manufactured

    product.

    The quality practitioners across the India have shown their interest in

    adopting ISO 9000, TQM and QA model guidelines to manage the quality and

    continual improvement in their organization, with an assumption that ISO 9000

    is mainly for SMEs and TQM/QA largely applicable and practiced in LE. There is

    no such model is available which integrates ISO 9000, TQM and QA models.

    The selection of quality typology in Indian scenario is dependent on rise in

    competitiveness and increase in sales turnover

    Further, in SMEs it was observed that firms are reluctant to implement

    TQM in their organizations, due to its long term process of implementation and

    fear of failures of TQM programmes. They also view QA model guidelines as a

    part of winning the award only, with spending the huge amount of time and

    capital and even not aware with the fact; that SMEs can also participate in QA

    winning procedures. This, is probably due to the two most recognised business

    excellence models, the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence (CPE) and

    the European Foundation for Quality Management Business Excellence Model,

    being developed in the West, and their use in Asia following later. Moreover,

    manufacturing practices and performance differs in many ways with different set

    of mind of expectations (before manufacturing) and perceptions (after selling)

    across the industries. Performance measures require a different model of

    quality practices; that are even antagonistic in their nature since maintaining

    paradoxes; can be one of the biggest challenges for organizations in

    competitive environment.

    Hence, it was desirable to develop a model for adopting good quality

    practices in industries to assess the impact on manufacturing practices and

    performance (performance measures) to enable the managers with self

    assessment of quality practices and performance measures in ISO 9000

    certified firms, TQM practicing firms, and firms willing to apply for Quality Award.

    Therefore, in this dissertation work, attempt has been made to provide a model

    for designing the instrument suiting to both SMEs and LE and to identify the

    bottlenecks for measuring the performance measures. The proposed model of

    adopting good quality practices in industries to asses the impact on

    manufacturing practices and performance, was in aligned with several

  • C.M.Sedani Page 3

    frameworks of past. However, unlike past frameworks; the advantage of

    proposed model can be obtained in both ways: measuring the performance as a

    single construct with eight constructs of quality practices, and measuring five

    performance indicators (product quality, process improvement, financial

    performance, customer satisfaction, and employee satisfaction) with single

    construct of quality practices. This dual advantage differentiates the proposed

    model with all past empirical frameworks. The proposed model of quality

    practices and performance measures provided the scale stability as reliability

    and validity assessment, mentioned in Chapter IV of this thesis has shown that

    model is statically significant for empirical investigations. Table 6.1, further

    provides the summary and checklist of reliability and validity assessment of

    model.

    Assessment Analysis Final Items Observations Conclusion

    Reliability Eight constructs of Quality Practices and One Constructs of Performance Measures (Means of all 24 constructs)

    For Quality Practices N=40, For Performance Measures N=24,

    The Cronbach’s α Value is ≥ 0.7

    The α Value more than 0.7 is acceptable for New Scale. The analysis provides the conclusion that scale provides the internal consistency and content validity for measurement (Nunnally,1998)

    Reliability All constructs of Quality Practices are considered as single Construct to measure five dimensions of Performance Measures

    For Quality Practices N=40, For Performance Measures N=06,

    The Cronbach’s α Value is ≥ 0.7

    The Value more than 0.7 is acceptable for New Scale. The analysis provides the conclusion that scale provides the internal consistency and content validity for measurement (Nunnally,1998)

    Unidimensionality Analysis

    Eight constructs of Quality Practices and One Constructs of Performance Measures (Means of all 24 constructs)

    For Quality Practices N=40, For Performance Measures N=24,

    All GFI Values are ≥ 0.9

    The GFI Values more than 0.9 provides the scale maintains the evidence of Good fit (Bentler, 1990). The Cronbach’s α Value ≥ 0.7 & GFI Value ≥ 0.9 for composite score of all nine constructs indicating that there is no evidence of a lack

    Table 6.1: Summary & Check-list of Reliability & Validity Assessment

  • C.M.Sedani Page 4

    of Unidimensionality for all constructs (Hair et al. , 2005)

    Unidimensionality Analysis

    All constructs of Quality Practices are considered as single Construct to measure five dimensions of Performance Measures

    For Quality Practices N=40 (as a single construct) For Performance Measures N=06,

    All GFI Values are ≥ 0.9

    The GFI Values more than 0.9 provides the scale maintains the evidence of Good fit (Bentler, 1990). The Cronbach’s α Value ≥ 0.7 & GFI Value ≥ 0.9 for composite score of all nine constructs indicating that there is no evidence of a lack of Unidimensionality for all constructs (Hair et al. , 2005)

    Discriminant Validity

    For Quality Practices & Performance Measures

    For Quality Practices N=40, For Performance Measures N=24,

    The confirmatory Factor Analysis and Chi-Square Value for Test of Independence of all constructs ≤ 0.05

    The CFA Model with KMO value ≥ 0.6 along with statistical significant value of chi- square ≤ 0.05, exhibits that constituent items estimates only one construct to maintain Discriminant validity of a scale (Ahire et al., 1996)

    Criterion-Related Validity

    For Quality Practices & Performance Measures

    For Quality Practices N=40, For Performance Measures N=24,

    The composite score of all nine constructs is indicated by Co- generic Model with Pearson co-relation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)

    The scale score of quality practices is co- related with performance measures shows statically significant correlation between two variables

    This research provides the model for adopting quality practices in industries and

    questionnaire for self assessment of quality practices in industries. The

    suitability of our questionnaire can be mentione