Text of Chapter 9: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence. Thinking 1. In psychology we call thinking...
Chapter 9: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
Thinking 1. In psychology we call thinking cognition 2. Thinking about thinking is called metacognition And it is what were going to be doing today! 3. How do we think?
Basic Approaches to Thinking 1. Concepts Ex. ball, chair, book, car 2. Prototypes Ex. Cat describe your prototypical cat
Problem Solving What are the basic approaches to solving a problem? 1. Trial and Error 2. Algorithms 3. Heuristics Insight
Things that get in the way of problem solving 1. Confirmation bias 2. Fixation Functional fixedness
More details about Heuristics We tend to use heuristics incorrectly in two basic ways: 1. Based on availability we make the mistake that if an idea comes to us easily, it must be common 2. Based on representativeness we make mistakes in judging the likelihood of something if the information we have fits a certain prototype Ken vs. Ed example
Overconfidence Another cognitive mistake people commonly make is to overestimate their own knowledge and accuracy Students often do this after leaving an exam
Framing: Making Decisions 1. Framing, or how an idea/issue is presented can have a huge effect on our approach to it In politics, this is called spin Store sales capitalize on the frame of getting a deal
Belief Perseverance 1. Despite evidence to the contrary, we tend to stick by our original beliefs about something 2. To get around this bias, you have to get people to fully consider the opposite position
Skinner & Chomsky: Two theories of Language Acquisition 1. Chomsky & the language acquisition device This device is a biological mechanism in the brain that allows us to learn language 2. You guys have heard Skinners name before anyone remember from what?
Language Development Four important parts of language: 1. Phonemes 2. Semantics 3. Syntax 4. Pragmatics 1. As early as 4 months old babies begin to babble and try our phonemic sounds 2. Around 1 year babies begin learning semantics & using single words
Development continued 1. During this one-word stage babies use single words to indicate longer sentences 2. Around age 2, they begin using telegraphic speech
Critical Period? 1. If we arent exposed to language during childhood, will we ever be able to learn it? 2. Language seems to have more of a sensitive period than a critical one
Thinking and Language 1. Linguistic Determinism is a theory that says language influences the way that we think Lots of cross-cultural research has shown that language does seem to shape the way we think 2. But do we always think in words??
Language and animals 1. Humans have unique language abilities productivity 2. Non-human primates also have language skills, but not with the same level of productivity
Can chimps talk? 1. Common chimps do communicate orally, but their calls dont resemble human speech 2. They can be taught very basic sign-language & to use other symbolic representations to indicate requests, etc. 3. But they dont use these gestures and symbols to make unique communications
Intelligence 1. Know key players Ex. Binet 2. Know different kinds of intelligence 3. Know the controversy/biases that surround intelligence testing