Chapter 9: Cultural Geography of Latin ethnic diversity of this ... CHAPTER CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY OF Latin America ... Mexico’s abundant resources of silver and gold,

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<ul><li><p>214 Unit 3</p><p>Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, displays the diverse cultures of Latin America.</p><p>Why It MattersA study of the cultural geography of Latin America will introduce the tremendous ethnic diversity of this region. It highlights how history and the blending of native and imported cultures have influenced how people live in Latin America .</p><p>Section 1: MexicoThe characteristics and distribu-tion of cultures influence human systems. Mexico has been shaped by the civilizations of the Maya and the Inca, and by the Spanish.</p><p>Section 2: Central America and the CaribbeanCulture influences peoples per-ceptions of places and regions. Native American, European, and African cultures have influenced Central America and the Caribbean.</p><p>Section 3: South AmericaThe characteristics and distribution of human populations affect physi-cal and human systems. South America has been influenced by Native American and European cul-tures, migration, physical geography, and urbanization.</p><p>Geography ONLINEChapter Overview Visit the World Geography and Cultures Web site at and click on Chapter OverviewsChapter 9 to preview infor-mation about the cultural geography of the region.</p><p>CHAPTER</p><p>CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY OF</p><p>Latin America</p><p>Aldo Torelli/Getty Images</p><p></p></li><li><p>LATIN</p><p> AM</p><p>ERICA</p><p>Summarizing Information Make a Folded Table to help you summa-rize information about the cultural geography of the subregions of Latin America.</p><p>Reading and Writing As you read the chapter, write notes about the population patterns, history and govern-ment, and culture of the subregions of Latin America. Summarize this information in the appropriate places in the table.</p><p>Chapter 9 215</p></li><li><p>SECTION 1 MexicoThousands of years ago, the descendants of Mexicos first inhabitants developed great civilizations. Over the centuries, there has been a blending of different ethnic groups, which is reflected in Mexicos present-day pop-ulation. Many of the unique characteristics and tradi-tions of Mexicos early civilizations, however, remain a vital part of the countrys cultural geography today.</p><p> Voices Around the WorldEvery March during the spring equinox at the ancient Maya ruins of Chichn Itz, the plumed serpent god Kukulcn takes shape from light and shadow and descends the side of the great pyramid El Castillo. People come from all over the world to witness this event, which marks the renewal of the cycle of life on what many archaeologists believe is the Maya calendar constructed in stone. It also serves as a reminder of a great culture.</p><p> Luis Albores, Mexico: Five Cultural Bests, National Geographic, April 2004</p><p>Guide to ReadingSection PreviewMexico has been shaped by ancient civilizations of native peoples and by Europeans.</p><p>Content Vocabulary</p><p>Academic Vocabulary external (p. 217) internal (p. 217) predict (p. 218)</p><p>Places to Locate Mexico (p. 217) Yucatn Peninsula (p. 217) Mexico City (p. 217) Tenochtitln (p. 218)</p><p>Reading StrategyCategorizing As you read, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one below by listing the reasons why many people migrate from rural areas to urban areas.</p><p>Maya ruins of Chichn Itz</p><p> indigenous (p. 217)</p><p> mestizo (p. 217) urbanization </p><p>(p. 217) megacity </p><p>(p. 217) primate city </p><p>(p. 217) glyph (p. 218) chinampas </p><p>(p. 218)</p><p> conquistador (p. 219)</p><p> viceroy (p. 219) caudillo (p. 219) syncretism </p><p>(p. 219) malnutrition </p><p>(p. 220) mural (p. 220) mosaic (p. 220) extended family </p><p>(p. 220)</p><p>216 Unit 3</p><p>Reasons for Internal Migration</p><p>Steve Elmore/Getty Images</p></li><li><p>LATIN</p><p> AM</p><p>ERICA</p><p>Chapter 9 217</p><p>Population PatternsMAIN MAIN IdeaIdea Ethnic groups, migration, and urban </p><p> growth have shaped population in Mexico.</p><p>GEOGRAPHY AND YOU What factors influence eth-nic diversity in the United States? Read to learn how ethnic diversity has shaped Mexicos population.</p><p>In Mexico, as in other Latin American countries, the ancestors of Native Americans were the first people to settle the region. For this reason, Native Americans today are known as indigenous (ihnDIHjuhnuhs) peoples, or peoples descended from an areas first inhabitants.</p><p>The PeopleMexicos first inhabitants probably migrated </p><p>from Asia 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Because these first peoples were isolated from one another for centuries, they evolved into their own cul-tural groups and developed highly organized civilizations. These indigenous groups thrived in different areas, such as the Maya in the Yucatn Peninsula. The majority of these groups, how-ever, lived in the southern part of the Mexican Plateau the center of the Aztec Empire.</p><p>With the arrival of European settlers over the centuries, a blending of peoples of Native American and European descent created a new ethnic group called mestizo. In Mexico today, mestizos make up the largest part of the population.</p><p>Density and DistributionWith 107 million people, Mexico is the worlds </p><p>most populous Spanish-speaking country. A pop-ulation density of 142 people per square mile (54 per sq. km) suggests a relatively uncrowded country. This figure is only an average, however. In Mexico City, more than 19 million people live within an area of 597 square miles (1,547 sq. km). That makes its population density 30,150 people per square mile (11,641 per sq. km)!</p><p>Migration has shaped Mexicos population. The desire for job opportunities and improved economic conditions drives external migration to other areas of the world. Internal rural-to-urban migration has greatly changed the population distribution, with approximately 75 percent of the population now living in cities. People migrate to urban areas because of limited </p><p>agricultural land and lack of access to social ser-vices. Many migrants move to cities along the U.S.-Mexico border. However, Mexico City remains the primary destination for most people who move within the country. This one-way migration from rural to urban areas results in ongoing, rapid urbanization the migration of people from the countryside to cities and the nat-ural population growth within urban areas.</p><p>Urban AreasIn some Latin American countries, growing </p><p>cities have absorbed surrounding cities and sub-urbs to create megacities, cities with more than 10 million people. The regions largest megacity is Mexico City, with a population of more than 19 million. By 2015, the city is expected to grow to 20.6 million people. Because of its size and influence, Mexico City is a primate city, an urban area that dominates its countrys econ-omy, culture, and political affairs.</p><p> Movement What two migration patterns have changed Mexicos population?</p><p>Population Trends in Mexico</p><p> 1. Place Describe population growth in Mexico City from 1950 to 2005. How does it compare to the population growth of Mexico as a whole?</p><p> 2. Movement Did Mexicos population grow at a faster rate between 1950 and 1970 or between 1990 and 2005?</p><p>Use StudentWorks Plus or</p><p></p></li><li><p>218 Unit 3</p><p>History and GovernmentMAIN MAIN IdeaIdea Native American empires and colonial </p><p>rule influenced Mexicos political and social structures.</p><p>GEOGRAPHY AND YOU What U.S. people played key roles in the early history of the country? Read to learn about Mexicos history and the influence of the Maya and Aztec civilizations.</p><p>In Mexico today, as throughout Latin America, people struggle with unresolved issues rooted in the past. </p><p>Native American EmpiresCenturies before Europeans arrived in the </p><p>Americas, two Native American empires the Maya and the Aztec flourished in the area that is present-day Mexico. These civilizations left enduring marks on Mexican history and culture.</p><p>The Maya dominated southern Mexico and northern Central America from about a.d. 250 to 900. They established many cities and built terraces, courts, and temples. Priests and nobles ruled the cities and surrounding areas. The Maya based their economy on agri-culture and trade.</p><p>Skilled in mathematics, the Maya developed accurate calendars and used </p><p>astronomical observations to predict solar eclipses. They made glyphs, picture writings carved in stone, on temples to honor their gods and record history.</p><p>For reasons that are still a mystery, the Maya eventually abandoned their cities. Archaeologists have uncovered the ruins of more than 40 Maya cities. However, most of the glyphs remain untrans-lated. Descendants of the Maya still live in villages in southern Mexico and Central America, where they practice subsistence farming.</p><p>The Aztec civilization arose in central Mexico in the a.d. 1300s. Their capital, built on an island in a large lake, was named Tenochtitln(taynawchteetLAHN). Today, it is the site of Mexico City. To feed the growing population, Aztec farmers cultivated all available land. They grew crops on chinampas floating islands made from large rafts covered with mud from the lake bottom.</p><p>The Aztec developed a highly structured class system headed by an emperor and military offi-cials. High-ranking priests performed rituals to win the favor of the gods. At the bottom of Aztec society were the largest group farmers, laborers, and soldiers.</p><p>Culture</p><p>The ArtsDiego Rivera is known for his wall paintings and frescos, or large paintings done on wet plaster. He used his art to illustrate Mexicos history and culture. In the central arch detail from his fresco From Conquest to 1930, Rivera uses images of peasants and workers to show foreign influence and Mexicos struggle for independence. This fresco is one in a series Rivera painted inside the National Palace in Mexico City depicting Mexicos history from Native American civilizations to just after Mexican independence.</p><p>Schalkwijk/Art Resource, NY</p></li><li><p>LATIN</p><p> AM</p><p>ERICA</p><p>Chapter 9 219</p><p>An Independent NationThe Aztec Empire was still expanding when </p><p>Spanish explorers landed on the Yucatn Peninsula in 1519. Desiring wealth from Mexicos abundant resources of silver and gold, Spanish conquistador, or conqueror, Hernn Corts defeated the Aztec in 1521 and claimed Mexico for Spain. For the next three centuries, Mexico was part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. It was governed under a highly structured political system by royally appointed officials known as viceroys.</p><p>In the late 1700s, resentment against Euro pean rule spread throughout Mexico and the rest of Latin America. The first Spanish-ruled country in Latin America to win independence was Mexico. A parish priest, Father Miguel Hidalgo, led Mexicos independence movement in 1810. After a long struggle, Mexico became indepen-dent in 1821. </p><p>In spite of its independence, Mexicos political and economic power remained in the hands of a small group of wealthy landowners, army offi-cers, and clergy. Power struggles, public dissatis-faction, and revolts led to a chaotic situation in the new republic. It was during this time that a new kind of leader emerged the caudillo(kowDEEyoh), or dictator. With the backing of military forces and wealthy landowners, cau-dillos became absolute rulers. </p><p>A new constitution in 1917 brought reforms and established Mexico as a federal republic with powers separated into three branches executive, legislative, and judicial. A president is elected to a single six-year term. Beginning in 1929, however, one political party, the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI), dominated the presidency and Mexican politics for nearly 70 years. The PRIs control ended in 2000 when Vicente Fox of the opposition party Partido Accin Nacional (PAN) won the election. The 2006 presidential election ensured PANs con-tinued control of the presidency when Felipe Calderon was declared the president-elect.</p><p>Struggles for additional reforms and political power continue. Native Americans, farmers, and workers continue to pressure the government for greater inclusion in the political system.</p><p> Regions Why was the outcome of Mexicos 2000 presidential election so significant?</p><p>CultureMAIN MAIN IdeaIdea The arts, traditions, and beliefs of </p><p>indigenous peoples and of Europeans have influ-enced Mexican culture.</p><p>GEOGRAPHY AND YOU Do you know of any cul-tural traditions that are unique to Mexico? Read to learn about the culture of Mexico.</p><p>The culture of Mexico is an intricate blending of indigenous and Spanish influences. </p><p>Language and ReligionIn Mexico, the official language is Spanish, </p><p>which is spoken by more than 95 percent of the population. More than 50 indigenous languages, however, are still spoken by some. Nearly 90 per-cent of Mexicos population is Roman Catholic, although many indigenous peoples retain their traditional religious beliefs. Some indigenous peoples blend traditional Maya beliefs and Roman Catholic beliefs. This blending of beliefs and practices is called syncretism.</p><p>Education and Health CareEducation varies greatly in Mexico. Most </p><p>public schools are in rural areas, but do not have the funding or qualified teachers of urban or private schools. Government promotion of adult literacy and funding for more schools has helped Mexico make gains in education. </p><p>The Day of the Dead, a festival honoring loved ones who have </p><p>died, has its origins in Aztec traditions.</p><p>Place What other elements of Mexican culture have Native American influences?</p><p>Cladio Cruz Valderrama/WORLDPICTURENEWS</p></li><li><p>220 Unit 3</p><p>As employment and education improve, health problems linked to poverty, lack of sanitation, and malnutrition a condition caused by a lack of proper food decrease. The federal govern-ment subsidizes health care, making it available to all citizens. However, the poor quality of pub-lic medicine causes many people to seek treat-ment in cities or other countries.</p><p>The ArtsInfluences of indigenous cultures and the Spanish </p><p>colonial period are evident in Mexicos arts. Early Native American architecture includes Maya pyra-mids and Aztec temples and palaces. Some of these buildings were decorated with murals, or wall paintings, and mosaics, pictures or designs made with colored stone or tile. The Spanish built churches and other buildings reflecting classic European architectural styles.</p><p>The twentieth century brought a renewed inter-est in precolonial history and culture. Diego Rivera painted murals of indigenous cultures and events in Mexicos history. Other noted Mexican artists include Frida Kahlo and Jos Clemente Orozco. The countrys past and cultural identity have inspired writers Octavio Paz and Carlos Fuentes. Ballet Folklrico fascinates audiences by perform-ing Native American and Spanish dances. </p><p>Family LifeMexicans highly value the family. Each person is </p><p>part of an extended family that includes great-grandparents, grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins as well as parents and children. Parents and children often share their home with members of the extended family. Compadres, or godparents, are chosen by the parents to sponsor their new baby and watch over his or her upbringing. </p><p>As in other Latin American societies, Mexican society still displays elements of machismo, a Spanish and Portuguese tradition of male supremacy. However, women have made rapid advances in recent decades.</p><p>Sports and LeisureSpectators...</p></li></ul>


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