Chapter 81 Emotion and Cognition The Connection Defining Emotion Manipulating and Measuring Emotion Emotional Learning: Acquiring Evaluations Emotion and Declarative Memory Emotion, Attention, and Perception Learning Objectives
Chapter 82 The Connection One of the more recent debates (in the 1980s), which opened the door to further investigation of the interaction of emotion and cognition, involved the question of whether or not an emotion could be experienced without cognitive appraisal (i.e., an interpretation of the reason for your feeling). The single most influential factor in this new focus is our growing understanding of the neural systems underlying emotion. It now appears, from neuroimaging and other brain-based studies, that some brain structures are more or less specialized for processing emotional stimuli. One of these is the amygdala, a small, almond-shaped structure in the medial temporal lobe just anterior to the hippocampus.
Chapter 85 Defining Emotion Emotion refers to a relatively brief episode of synchronized responses (which can include bodily responses, facial expression, and subjective evaluation) that indicate the evaluation of an internal or external event as significant. Emotion refers to the range of reactions to events that are limited in time, such as experiencing joy, fear, or sadness in response to hearing some news. Mood, on the other hand, is used to refer to a diffuse affective state that is most pronounced as a change in subjective feeling. Moods are generally affective states of low intensity but relatively long duration, and sometimes without any apparent cause, such as a spontaneous feeling of gloom or cheerfulness.
Chapter 86 Defining Emotion Two related concepts are attitudes and motivation: Attitudes are relatively enduring, affectively colored beliefs, preferences, and predispositions toward objects or persons, such as like, love, hate, or desire for a person or object. Finally, motivation refers to the propensity to action that is a component of some affective responses. A primary function of emotion is to motivate action (if the image on the screen had been real, your action in response might have been of larger scale, and you might have survived to see another day).
10 In his groundbreaking work On the Origin of Species (1859), Charles Darwin was one of the first to propose that there are a limited number of basic and universal human emotions. Nearly a hundred years later Paul Ekman and his colleagues studied the facial expression of emotion and suggested that there are six basic expressions of emotion, corresponding to anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. Although there is not yet a complete understanding of the specific neural representations that underlie the perception of each of the six basic emotion expressions defined by Ekman, this research supports the idea that there are in fact distinct basic emotions, emotional reactions that are universal across cultures. Basic Emotions
Chapter 811 Basic Emotions
Chapter 812 Dimensional Approaches The Circumplex Model The ApproachWithdrawal Distinction
Chapter 813 The Circumplex Model Arousal is the overall term for the bodily changes that occur in emotion, such as changes in heart rate, sweating, and the release of stress hormones in response to a stimulusthe changes in your physical self when youre watching a horror movie or asking for a date. Valence, on the other hand, is the subjective quality, positive or negative, of the emotional response to a specific object or event. Both these dimensions can be put on scales: you can be asleep, relaxed, or highly excited, you can be terrifically pleased, indifferent, or highly turned offand anything in between. The circumplex model of emotion puts arousal on one axis and valence on the other.
Chapter 816 Manipulating and Measuring Emotion Manipulation by Mood Induction Manipulation by Evocative Stimuli Measuring Emotion Directly Measuring Emotion Indirectly
Chapter 817 Manipulation by Mood Induction Mood induction, focuses on changing the baseline state reported by the participants on arriving at the laboratory. Typical means of changing a participants mood are to show the participant affective film clips (hilariously funny or grim and despairing, depending on the change sought by the experimenter), to play music (again, upbeat or solemn), or to ask the participant to focus on affective situations, real or imagined, that result in either positive or negative mood states. Mood induction is considered successful if the participant reports a shift of mood in the predicted direction.
Chapter 818 Manipulation by Evocative Stimuli The most common laboratory technique used to manipulate emotion (as opposed mood) is the presentation of emotionally evocative stimuli. Typical stimuli used elicit emotional responses in participants are pictures of faces with different emotional expressions; pictures of emotional scenes such as an appealing baby or the very unappealing muzzle of a revolver Words that vary in valence and arousal; money; loud noise; and mild shock. By presenting participants with stimuli that evoke emotional experiences, investigators can explore the impact this emotional experience has on mental and physical behaviors and neural responses.
Chapter 819 Manipulation by Evocative Stimuli
Chapter 820 Measuring Emotion Directly Probably the most common technique used to assess affective states or responses, both inside and outside the laboratory, is self-report. If we want to know how someone feels, we ask. This is a form of direct assessment, in that participants explicitly report their emotional reaction, mood, or attitude. Although this is an often-used method for assessing affective states, it relies on introspection and is affected by cultural conventions.
Chapter 821 Measuring Emotion Indirectly One way of making an indirect assessment is to ask the participant to choose among different options on the assumption that an emotional assessment of the options partly determines the choice. A second indirect measure of emotional assessment is the inhibition or facilitation of a behavior, such as response time or eye movements. A third technique of indirect assessment makes use of psychophysiology, the study of the relationship between mental states and physiological responses.
Chapter 822 Measuring Emotion Indirectly Two important psychophysiological responses assessed by researchers interested in emotion are the skin conductance response and the potentiated eyeblink startle. The skin conductance response (SCR) is an indication of autonomic nervous system arousal. Even a subtle emotional stimulus can produce a response from the sweat glands (controlled by the autonomic nervous system). We blink harder when startled more, which is called a potentiated eyeblink startle.
Chapter 824 Emotional Learning: Acquiring Evaluations Classical Conditioning Instrumental Conditioning: Learning by Reward or Punishment Instructional and Observational Learning Mere Exposure
Chapter 825 Emotional Learning: Acquiring Evaluations Emotional learning: people, places, and things are not all neutral but often acquire some kind of value. Primary reinforcers are called so because their motivational properties occur naturally and do not need to be learned. Money is a classic example of a secondary reinforcer, a stimulus whose motivational properties are acquired through learning.
Chapter 826 Classical Conditioning The name most often associated with classical conditioning is that of Ivan Pavlov (18491936), the great Russian physiologist who discovered the principles of such conditioning. Pavlov was interested in digestion and intended to examine salivation in dogs in response to food. His studies became complicated when the dogs started to salivate before the food was presented: the salivation response was occurring when a researcher opened the door to the dogs quarters.
Chapter 827 Classical Conditioning
Chapter 828 Classical Conditioning
Chapter 829 Classical Conditioning
Chapter 830 Classical Conditioning
Chapter 831 Classical Conditioning
Chapter 833 Instrumental Conditioning: Learning by Reward or Punishment The principle underlying instrumental conditioning (which is also known as operant conditioning) is that a behavior or response will increase or decrease in frequency depending on the outcome of that behavioron w