Chapter 8 Table of Contents Standards Review

Chapter 8 Table of Contents Standards Review Table of Contents ▪ 8.1 ▪ 8.2 ▪ 8.3 ▪ 8.4 ▪ Summary ▪ Review Questions

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Standards6.H.2.1 Explain how invasions, conquests and migrations affected various civilizations, societies and regions6.H.2.3 Explain how innovation and/or technology transformed civilizations, societies and regions over time6.G.1.2 Explain the factors that influenced the movement of people, goods and ideas and the effects of that movement on societies and regions over time6.C&G.1.1 Explain the origins and structures of various governmental systems6.C.1.1 Analyze how cultural expressions reflected the values of civilizations, societies and regions3Many American and European use the Greek writings as models for their own writings.4Homer8.1Greek BeliefsGods and goddessesEvery four years, Greek athletes took part in athletic competitions.For the greater glory of ZeusStart of the OlympicsBelieved that the gods would be pleased if people showed skills in the arts, in athletic games, or in thinking.Greek OraclesBelieved gods gave prophesies to warn people about the future in time to change it.Greeks visited Oracles.Shrine where priest spoke to gods.Greek WritingsGreek poems are some of the oldest literature in western civilizations.First stories were epics.Iliad and the Odyssey

8.1The Golden AgeA period of time in Greece in which art, philosophy, architecture, and literature flourished.Aesop was a historian who created stories which were passed down using oral tradition.Impact of Greek DramaGreeks created and performed first dramas.Greek dramas have two main categories: tragedy or comedy.Dramas were more than entertainment; it was also used during religious festivals.Trojan HorseFrom the Iliad written by Homer.Prince of Troy falls in love with Hellen, wife of a Greek King.Prince kidnaps wife.Greek kings soldiers hide in a wooden horse and attack after dark.OdysseyWritten by HomerStory of a soldier, Odysseus, going home after the Trojan War.Journey took 10 years.

8.1Greek DramatistsAeschylusSophoclesEuripidesAristophanesGreek Art and ArchitectureExpressed the ideals of reason, balance, and harmony.Characteristics of Greek art became the artistic style now called Classical.Every Greek city-state had a temple dedicated to a god or goddess.Some buildings in Washington DC are modeled after Greek Architecture.Greek sculptors tried to show ideal beauty in perfect human form.

8.2 Greek ThinkersThe SophistsGroup of philosophers that traveled from polis to polis.Made a living by teaching.Did not believed that gods influenced human actions.Challenged Greek traditions.SocratesSculptor and philosopher.Lived in Athens and spent most time teaching.Created a new way of questioning, called the Socratic Method.Fearful of his influence, Socrates was arrested.

8.2PlatoAristotleA philosopher, one of Socrates students.

Became a teacher and founded a school in Athens, called the Academy.

Believed that an ideal society must have a just and reasonable government.

Believed that women should have the same opportunities for education and jobs that men have.Started a school called Lyceum.

Aristotle studied many things.

Classified things by their similarities and differences.Important in the advancement of science.

Believed that no one person should have too much power in a government.Changed the way Europeans and Americans thought about government.

8.2The Greeks and History

HerodotusGreek historian.Wrote history of Persian Wars.Carefully researched information.European and American historians consider him the father of history.

ThucydidesGeneral in Peloponnesian War.Wrote The History of the Peloponnesian War.Not only recorded facts, but offered ideas about the causes and effects.

The First Scientists

ThalesBorn in the mid-600 BCStudied astronomy and mathematics

PythagorusTaught that the universe followed the same rules governed by music and numbers.Believed that anything can be expressed in numbers.Developed many ideas about mathematics that we still use today.Pythegorean theorem.

8.3 Alexanders EmpireConquering GreeceUnder Philip II, Macedonia became a superpower in the ancient world.Philip II created a strong army and took over Greece.

Alexander Takes OverAlexander, Philip IIs son, took control after fathers death.Led a strong army into war with Persia.Cavalry crushed Persian forces.Freed Greek city-state that had been under Persian rule.Expanded empire in all directions.Spread Greek language, ideas, art and architecture throughout Southwest Asia and Egypt.Alexanders rule marked the beginning of the Hellenistic Era, Hellenistic means Like the Greeks

8.3A Divided EmpireAfter Alexander died, his generals divided the empire into four separate kingdoms.Macedonia, Pergamum, Egypt, and the Seleucid Empire.

The Hellenistic KingsPeople who served the government in the Hellenistic period had to speak Greek.Hellenistic kings preferred to give jobs to Greeks and Macedonians.By 100 BC Alexandria, in Egypt, was the largest city in the Mediterranean world.Created new cities and military posts.

8.4Hellenistic ArtsAlexandria was an important city at this time, it was a central place for learning.Hellenistic kings spent large amounts of money to create architecture in many cities to look like the architecture in Athens.Hellenistic sculptors showed people in a more realistic way than the sculptors of Greeces Golden Age.

Hellenistic WritersPoems were important/popular in the Hellenistic Era.Athens was the center of Greek theater.Comedies were geared more toward ordinary people, rather than making fun of political leaders like writers in the Golden Age.

8.4Thinkers and ScientistsEpicurus was the most important Hellenistic philosopher.Created Epicureanism taught happiness was the goal of life.StoicsZeno, philosopher, developed Stoicism.Believed that people who were guided by their emotions lived unhappy lives.

Science and MathAristarchus claimed that the sun was the center of the universe, for the first time.Euclid taught about his geometry theories, which we still learn today.Developed plane geometry.Eratosthenes used this geometry knowledge to measure the circumference of the earth.Archimedes worked on solid geometry.

8.4Greece and RomeThe four kingdoms under Alexander could not work together.Macedonia could not keep power over Greek city-states.Rome was a city-state in central ItalyIn late 200s BC, Rome conquered entire Italian Peninsula, Greece lost these lands.Greece feared Rome would take over.Helped Romes enemies.Gradually Rome took over and gained control of Greece mainland.

SummaryPersia expanded and created a big empire around the same time Greece was growing. Persia and Greece went to war, Persia lost. Alexander, from Macedonia, took over Greece and the Hellenistic period began. Macedonians spread Hellenistic culture, and Greece was split into 4 kingdoms. 4 kingdoms couldnt work together. Eventually Rome started to take over.

Review QuestionsWhat does Hellenistic mean?Who was Philip IIs son?How did Greek writings influence European and American literature?Who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey?Who was known as the father of history?What four kingdoms was Greece broken up into?What empire started to take over Greece after it was split up into 4 kingdoms?