Text of Chapter 71 bela bartok and hungarian folk music
Chapter 71Bla Bartk andHungarian Folk Music
The Austro-Hungarian Empire Before 1914The Austro-Hungarian Empiremade up of lands ruled by the Hapsburgkingsexisted between 1867 and 1918 .It was divided loosely into two parts: the western third was Austria, in a broadsense, with its capital in Vienna.The larger western part was Hungary, its capital in Budapest. Both partsspread over other nationseach with its own language and historythat werestriving for independence.The Empire disintegrated during World War I, leaving both Austriaand Hungary as small independent countries.
The Life of Bla Bartk (18811945) 1881 - born in a small farming village near the Hungarian-Romanian border; grows up in Pozsony, near Vienna 1899 - enters the Music Academy in Budapest 1901 - begins to tour as a professional pianist 1904 - discovers the simple folk songs of Hungarian peasants 1907 - appointed professor of piano at the Budapest Academy 1940 - emigrates to America, lives in New York 1943 - composes the Concerto for Orchestra 1945 - dies in New York
Bela Bartk and Hungarian Folk Music The nation of Hungary was greatly reduced in size following World War I. Its rural people still preserved a rich culture of folk songs, some of which were ancient in orgin. Hungarian composer Bela Bart k collected and studied this musical repertoire. He especially valued old Hungarian songs, which tended to be: simple in expression pentatonic in pitch content flexible in their freedom from a strict beat.
Bartks Music Bartk often made artistic arrangements of folk songs. His original compostions (i.e. Concerto for Orchestra): reveal elements of the folk style combine modern harmonic practices Bartks Concerto for Orchestra is close to the symphony in form: though the virtuosic treatment of various instruments from the orchestra ties in with the idea of a concerto. The themes and motives are closely unified and this work has a classical tone in form and genre that hints at Stravinskys neoclassicism.
Principal Compositions by Bla Bartk Opera and ballets: include Duke Bluebeards Castle (opera) The Miraculous Mandarin (ballet) Orchestra: includes concertos (2 for violin, 3 for piano), Concerto for Orchestra , Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta Chorus: arrangements, Cantata profana Chamber music: string quartets (6), Contrasts (violin, clarinet, piano), Sonatas for violin (2) Piano: Sonata, character pieces, arrangements, pedagogical works (including Mikrokosmos ) Songs: mostly folk song arrangements
Features of Old Hungarian Peasant Songs in Fekete fd strophic form each line has same number of syllables (here 11) melody is purely pentatonic (here E G A B D) rhythm is free from beat and chantlike (parlando- rubato) downward leap of fourth at final cadence
Bla Bartk, Concerto for Orchestra, 1943, movement 1Sonata form