Chapter 6: Network Layer - E-Learning | Universitas AMIKOM .Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) !

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2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Presentation_ID 1

Chapter 6: Network Layer

Introduction to Networks

Presentation_ID 2 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Bab 6: Tujuan

Siswa akan mampu untuk:

!Menjelaskan cara lapisan jaringan protokol dan dukungan layanan komunikasi lintas data melalui jaringan.

!Menjelaskan cara router melakukan sambungan end-to-end pada jaringan bisnis kecil sampai menengah.

!Menentukan alat yang tepat untuk menentukan jalur traffic pada jaringan bisnis kecil sampai menengah.

!Mengkonfigurasi router dengan pengaturan dasar.

Presentation_ID 3 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

BAB 6 6.1 Network Layer Protokol 6.2 Routing 6.3 Routers 6.4 Konfigurasi Router Cisco

6.5 Rangkuman

Presentation_ID 4 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Lapisan Jaringan

Network Layer

Presentation_ID 5 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Network Layer Protokol Komunikasi di Network Layer

Presentation_ID 6 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Komunikasi di Network layer

Network Layer Proses perpindahan End to End

!Pengalamatan dan Perangkat

!Enkapsulasi

!Routing

!De-enkapsulasi

Presentation_ID 7 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Komunikasi di Network Layer

Network Layer Protokol Network Layer Protokol Pada Umumnya

!Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)

!Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)

Network Layer Protokol Sebelumnya

!Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)

!AppleTalk

!Connectionless Network Service (CLNS/DECNet)

Presentation_ID 8 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Ciri Khas Protokol IP Ciri Khas IP

Presentation_ID 9 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Ciri Khas Protokol IP

IP Connectionless (Tanpa Sambungan)

Presentation_ID 10 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Ciri Khas Protokol IP

IP Best Effort Delivery

Presentation_ID 11 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Ciri Khas Protokol IP

IP Media Independent

Presentation_ID 12 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Paket IPv4

Meng-enkapsulasi IP

Presentation_ID 13 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Paket IPv4

Paket Header IPv4 Versi, Differentiated Services (DS), Time-to-Live (TTL), Protokol, Alamat IP Sumber, Alamat IP Tujuan

Version IP Header Length Differentiated Services

Total Length DSCP ECN

Identification Flag Fragment Offset

Time To Live Protocol Header Checksum

Source IP Address

Destination IP Address

Options (optional) Padding

Byte 1 Byte 2 Byte 3 Byte 4

Presentation_ID 14 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Paket IPv4

Cakupan Header IPv4 Internet Header Length (IHL), Panjang Total, Header Checksum, Identifikasi, Flags, Cetakan Fragmen

Version IP Header Length Differentiated Services

Total Length DSCP ECN

Identification Flag Fragment Offset

Time To Live Protocol Header Checksum

Source IP Address

Destination IP Address

Options (optional) Padding

Byte 1 Byte 2 Byte 3 Byte 4

Presentation_ID 15 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Paket IPv4

Contoh Header IPv4

Presentation_ID 16 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Komunikasi di Network Layer Kekurangan-kekurangan IPv4 !Kehabisan IP Address !Berkembangnya routing tabel internet

!Kekurangan sambungan end-to-end

Presentation_ID 17 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Komunikasi di Network Layer Pengenalan IPv6 !Penambahan rentang alamat !Penambahan packet handling

!Tidak memerlukan NAT

!Keamanan terintegrasi

!4 billion IPv4 addresses 4,000,000,000

!340 undecillion IPv6 addresses 340,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

Presentation_ID 18 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Paket IPv6

Enkapsulasi IPv6

Presentation_ID 19 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Paket IPv6

Paket Header IPv6

Version Traffic Class Flow Label

Payload Length Next Header Hop Limit

Source IP Address

Destination IP Address

Byte 1 Byte 2 Byte 3 Byte 4

Presentation_ID 20 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

IPv6 Packet

Contoh IPv6 Header

Presentation_ID 21 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Routing Routing Table Host

Presentation_ID 22 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Routing Table Host Paket Penerusan Keputusan Host

Presentation_ID 23 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Routing Table Host Default Gateway Host harus mengurus routing tabel-nya sendiri, areanya, untuk memastikan bahwa paket Network Layer diarahkan pada jaringan tujuan yang tepat. Tabel lokal dari host meliputi:

!Koneksi Langsung

!Local network route

!Local default route

R

Presentation_ID 24 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Routing Table Host Routing Table Host IPv4

Presentation_ID 25 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Routing Table Host Contoh Routing Table Host IPv4

Presentation_ID 26 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Routing Table Host Contoh Daftar Penjaluran Host IPv6

Presentation_ID 27 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Routing Table Host Keputusan Melewatkan Paket Router

Presentation_ID 28 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Routing Table Host Router Table IPv4

R1#show ip route Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks D 10.1.1.0/24 [90/2170112] via 209.165.200.226, 00:00:05, Serial0/0/0 D 10.1.2.0/24 [90/2170112] via 209.165.200.226, 00:00:05, Serial0/0/0 192.168.10.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 3 masks C 192.168.10.0/24 is directly connected, GigabitEthernet0/0 L 192.168.10.1/32 is directly connected, GigabitEthernet0/0 192.168.11.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 3 masks C 192.168.11.0/24 is directly connected, GigabitEthernet0/1 L 192.168.11.1/32 is directly connected, GigabitEthernet0/1 209.165.200.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 3 masks C 209.165.200.224/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0 L 209.165.200.225/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0 R1#

192.168.10.0/24

R2

192.168.11.0/24

10.1.1.0/24

10.1.2.0/24

209.165.200.224 /30 .226

.10

.10

.10

.10

.1

.1 .1 G0/1

.225 S0/0/0

G0/0 .1

R1 PC1

PC2

Presentation_ID 29 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Routing Table Host Catatan Routing Table Directly Connected

C 192.168.10.0/24 is directly connected, GigabitEthernet0/0 L 192.168.10.1/32 is directly connected, GigabitEthernet0/0

A B C

A Menunjukkan bagaimana jaringan diinterpretasikan oleh Router.

B Menunjukkan jaringan tujuan dan bagaimana caranya terhubung.

C Menunjukkan interface dari router yang terhubung dengan jaringan tujuan.

192.168.10.0/24

R2

192.168.11.0/24

10.1.1.0/24

10.1.2.0/24

209.165.200.224 /30 .226

.10

.10

.10

.10

.1

.1

64.100.0.1

.1 G0/1

.225 S0/0/0

G0/0 .1

R1 PC1

PC2

Presentation_ID 30 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Routing Table Host Catatan Routing Table Jaringan yang Jauh

D 10.1.1.0/24 [90/2170112] via 209.165.200.226, 00:00:05, Serial0/0/0

A Menunjukkan bagaimana jaringan diinterpretasikan oleh Router. B Menunjukkan jaringan tujuan. C Menunjukkan jarak administratif (trustworthiness) dari jalur sumber. D Menunjukkan metric untuk menjangkau jaringan jarak jauh. E Menunjukkan next hop IP address untuk menjangkau jaringan jarak jauh. F Menunjukkan durasi sejak jaringan ditemukan. G Menunjukkan outgoing interface dari router untuk menjangkau jaringan tujuan.

192.168.10.0/24

R2

192.168.11.0/24

10.1.1.0/24

10.1.2.0/24

209.165.200.224 /