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CHAPTER 44 Classical Music in Vienna

Chapter 44 classical music in vienna

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Page 1: Chapter 44   classical music in vienna

CHAPTER 44

Classical Music in Vienna

Page 2: Chapter 44   classical music in vienna

• Vienna was the capital of the Holy Roman Empire and a melting pot of cultures.

• There the greatest musicians of the time found generous patrons among the many Viennese aristocratic families.

• Viennese school: a group of composers that includes Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Schubert, all of whom worked in Vienna at the height of their careers.

Vienna

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Neoclassical architecture: an 18th-century style of architectural design that revived classical (especially Roman) architecture.

Symmetrical units, long lines, and restrained ornamentation characterize this style.

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The Classical style derives many of its characteristics from the galant style: clarity, simplicity, formal balance, and naturalness.

Between 1770 -1820, the Classical style dominated Western art music, which for this reason has come to be known as "Classical" music.

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Classical forms

• Rounded binary: ABA‘:

- A ends in a new key (usually the dominant or relative major)

- B begins in the new key and gradually gives way to an altered reprise, A'.

- In the Classical period scherzos and minuets are almost always in this form.

• Ternary:

- ABA, where A begins and ends in the tonic and is repeated note for note.

- B, which modulates to complementary keys.

Classical composers often used strict ternary form in the third movements of symphonies and string quartets.

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Classical forms

• Theme-and-Variations: a theme that is subsequently varied: – melodically– harmonically– rhythmically– and/or by ornamentation.

• Rondo: a refrain (A) is set against

contrasting material (B, C, or D), thus creating the pattern ABACA, ABACABA, or even ABACADA. – it was usually employed in the last

movements of sonatas and symphonies.

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Sonata form

• Sonata form is the most important formal innovation of the Classical period.

• Composers usually employed sonata form in fast (allegro) first movements of a sonata, quartet, concertos, or symphony.

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Sonata form (cont.)

• Exposition: the first section of a movement in sonata form in which the primary thematic material is presented. It usually consists of a first theme in the tonic, a second theme in the dominant or relative major, and sometimes a closing theme.

• Transition or bridge: the passage that modulates between the tonic and the new key in the exposition.

• Development: the second section in which the themes of the exposition are varied and developed.

• Retransition: the end of the development which brings back harmonic stability (often in the form of a dominant pedal point).

• Recapitulation: the return to the thematic material of the exposition, varied to ensure that the second theme remain in the tonic key.

• Coda: Italian for "tail," an additional closing section sometimes appended to the recapitulation.

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Classical genres

• Symphony: during the 18th century it replaced the solo concerto and concerto grosso as the leading genre of large-scale instrumental music.

• From the Classical period onward, the symphony formed the heart and soul of almost all orchestral concerts.

• Concerto: while the concerto grosso mostly disappeared, composers wrote solo concertos mostly for violin and piano.

• Divertimento and serenade: a musical diversion for various types of chamber ensembles characterized by a lighter style and a five-movement format: – fast/minuet and trio/slow/minuet and trio/fast.

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Classical genres (cont.)

• String quartet: conceived by Haydn in the 1750s by adding a viola to the old Baroque trio texture.

• The string quartet featured four more-or-less evenly matched instrumental parts. – unlike the symphony and the concerto, it was

designed for private ("chamber") performances.

• Sonata: a type of domestic instrumental chamber music in two, three, or, more rarely, four movements for soloist or small ensemble.

• Sonatina: Italian for "small sonata," it denotes a short and easy sonata, mostly intended for amateur aristocratic musicians.

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The Classical orchestra

• The orchestra between 1750 and 1820 experienced a significant growth as the performance of the symphony moved from the private salon to the public auditorium.

• Most of this increase occurred in the string section. • The standard woodwind section now included pairs of oboes, clarinets, flutes, and bassoons while trumpets and drums might be occasionally added in festive occasions.

• The typical "mid-size" orchestra counted between 35-40 players.

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Crook: a small piece of pipe that altered the length of tubing, and consequently the pitch, of the natural horn and natural trumpet.