CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH TOOLS FOR UNDERSTANDING SPORTS CONSUMERS

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  • CHAPTER 4RESEARCH TOOLS FOR UNDERSTANDING SPORTS CONSUMERS

  • Marketing Research: Systematic process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to reduce the risk in decision makingWhat kinds of studies would need to be done in sports marketing?When should the studies be used in the context of the marketing plan?How would the marketing research studies be conducted?

  • Marketing Research ProcessProblem/Opportunity DefinitionChoosing a Research Design TypeChoosing a Data Collection MethodDesigning a Data Collection FormChoosing a Sampling Technique and Collecting DataData AnalysisFinal Report Preparation

  • Abbreviated Research ProposalPROBLEM STATEMENTRESEARCH OBJECTIVESMETHODOLOGY SampleProceduresDATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT

  • Designing A QuestionnaireSpecify Information RequirementsDetermine Method of AdministrationDetermine Content of QuestionsDetermine Form of ResponseDetermine Exact Wording of QuestionsDetermine Question SequencePretest and Revise if Necessary

  • CHAPTER 5UNDERSTANDING PARTICIPANTS AS CONSUMERS

  • Adult Sport Participant Market:General ObservationsMajority of American adults do not participate in many of the most common sportsNumbers conflicting; Surgeon Generals Report (only 15% of adults say that they exercise regularly)Why?

  • Most Popular Sports

  • Participant Consumption BehaviorActions performed when searching for, participating in, and evaluating the sports activities that consumers feel will satisfy their needs and desires.

  • Model of Participant Consumption Behavior

  • Decision-Making ProcessProblem RecognitionInformation SearchAlternative EvaluationParticipatePost-Participation Evaluation

  • Psychological FactorsPersonalityPerceptionAttitudesMotivationLearning

  • Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

  • Model of Attitude Formation

  • Why Do We Participate?Personal Improvement - Better health, sense of accomplishment, develop positive values, etc.Sport Appreciation - Enjoy the game and competitionSocial Facilitation - Spend time with others, feel like part of a group

  • Sociological FactorsCultureReference GroupsFamilySocial Class

  • Model of Consumer Socialization

  • CHAPTER 6UNDERSTANDING SPECTATORS AS CONSUMERS

  • Understanding Spectators as ConsumersExamining the differencesSometimes there is overlap, but usually treated as separate and distinct marketsHeavy Participants - More likely to be male, better educated, more minorities, and younger than spectators

  • Factors Influencing AttendanceFan Motivation FactorsGame Attractiveness FactorsEconomic FactorsCompetitive FactorsDemographic FactorsStadium FactorsValue to the CommunitySports Involvement Fan Identification

  • Fan Motivation FactorsSelf-Esteem Enhancement (BIRGing and CORFing behaviors) Diversion from everyday lifeEntertainment ValueEustress or Positive StressEconomic ValueAesthetic ValueNeed for AffiliationFamily Ties

  • Model of SportscapeStadium AccessFacility AestheticsScoreboard QualitySeating ComfortPleasureDesire to StayRepatronageLayout AccessibilitySpace AllocationSignagePerceived CrowdingFactorsAffective ResponseBehaviors

  • Understanding Spectators as Consumers: What do fans value?

    Reasonably priced parking ($8) and tickets ($25) Adequate parking/accessReasonably priced foodsHome team with a winning recordClose scoreHome team star regarded as top 10 playerReasonably priced souvenirsGame that ends in less than three hoursWide variety of snack foods

  • Sport InvolvementPerceived interest and personal importance of sports to spectatorsTwo dimensions of sport involvement: Importance of Sport and Affect (feelings)High involvement consumers attend more games, consume more sports through media such as newspapers, Internet, magazines, and are more likely to identify sponsors

  • Fan IdentificationRelated to sport involvementDefined as the personal commitment and emotional involvement customers have with a sports organizationLevel of fan identification: Low (social); Medium (focused); High (vested)Why do we want high identification? Higher attendance,decreased price sensitivity, decreased performance-outcome sensitivity

  • CHAPTER 7SEGMENTATION, TARGETING, AND POSITIONING

  • Segmentation - Grouping consumers together with common needs

    Segmentation Bases:DemographicGeographicPsychographicBenefitsGeodemographicBehavioral

  • Segmentation Modern Family Life Cycle

  • Targeting - Evaluating the various segments and selecting the one(s) that promises the best ROMISuccessful Targets Must (Be):SizableMeasurableReachableDemonstrate Behavioral Variation

  • Positioning - Finding a way to fix your product in the minds of consumersPerceptual Mapping

  • Six Attributes of SportsStrength, speed vs. methodical, precise movementsAthletes only as participants vs. athletes + recreational participantsSkill emphasis on impact with object vs. skill emphasis on body movementPractice primarily alone vs. primarily with othersA younger participant in the sport vs. wide age range of participantsLess masculine vs. more masculine

  • Perceptual Map for Sports

  • CHAPTER 8SPORTS PRODUCT CONCEPTS

  • CHAPTER 7SEGMENTATION, TARGETING, AND POSITIONING

  • Segmentation - Grouping consumers together with common needs

    Segmentation Bases:DemographicGeographicPsychographicBenefitsGeodemographicBehavioral

  • Segmentation Modern Family Life Cycle

  • Targeting - Evaluating the various segments and selecting the one(s) that promises the best ROMISuccessful Targets Must (Be):SizableMeasurableReachableDemonstrate Behavioral Variation

  • Positioning - Finding a way to fix your product in the minds of consumersPerceptual Mapping

  • Six Attributes of SportsStrength, speed vs. methodical, precise movementsAthletes only as participants vs. athletes + recreational participantsSkill emphasis on impact with object vs. skill emphasis on body movementPractice primarily alone vs. primarily with othersA younger participant in the sport vs. wide age range of participantsLess masculine vs. more masculine

  • Perceptual Map for Sports

  • Sports Product Concepts

    Sports Product - Good, Service or Combination of the two that is designed to provide benefits to a sports spectator, participant, or sponsor.

  • Goods and Services as Sports Products (The Good/Service Continuum)Intangibility cannot be seen, felt, tastedInseparability simultaneous production and consumptionHeterogeneity potential for high variabilityPerishability cannot be inventoried or saved

  • Classification Of Sports ProductsProduct Mix - All the different products and services a firm offers

    Product Line - Groups of individual products that are closely related in some way

    Product Item - Any specific version of a product that can be designated as a distinct offering

  • Product CharacteristicsBrandingProduct Design Product QualityTotal Product

  • BrandingName,design, symbol, or any combination Broad purpose of branding is for a product to distinguish and differentiate itself from all other productsSome great sports names include the Macon Whoopie, Louisiana Ice Gators

  • Brand NamesWhats in a name?Easy to say, generates positive feelings and associationsTranslatable into a successful logoConsistent with rest of product lines, city, or organizationLegally and ethically permissible

  • Branding ProcessBrand Awareness

    Brand Image

    Brand Equity

    Brand Loyalty

  • Model of Brand Equity

  • LicensingContractual agreement whereby a company may use another companys branding in exchange for a royalty or feeBooming business (e.g., NBA has 150 licenses) with $13.65 billionNFL (3.6) NBA (2.6) Colleges (2.0) MLB (1.9) NHL (1.2) CAPS (Coalition to Advance the Protection of Sports Logos)

  • Sports Product Quality Quality of ServicesQuality of Goods

  • Nature of Service QualityEXPECTED SERVICE LEVELSPERCEIVED SERVICE LEVELS

  • Expected Service LevelsService Promises (ads, price)Word-of-MouthPast Experience

  • Perceived Service Levels -Service Quality DimensionsTangibles Physical facilities, appearance of personnel, equipmentReliability Ability to perform the service dependably, accurately, consistentlyResponsiveness Willingness to provide prompt service to customersAssurance Trust, knowledge, and courtesy of employeesEmpathy Caring, individualized attention to customers

  • Quality of Goods DimensionsPerformanceFeaturesConformity to SpecificationsReliabilityDurabilityServiceabilityAesthetic Design

  • Product Design - Aesthetics, Style and Function of the Product

    RELATIONSHIP AMONG PRODUCT DESIGN, TECHNOLOGY, AND PRODUCT QUALITYTechnological EnvironmentProduct QualityProduct Design

  • CHAPTER 9MANAGING SPORTS PRODUCTS

  • New Sports Products From the Perspective of the OrganizationNew-to-the-World ProductsNew Product Category EntriesProduct Line ExtensionsProduct ImprovementsRepositionings

  • New Sports Products From the Perspective of the ConsumerDiscontinuous InnovationsDynamically Continuous InnovationsContinuous Innovations

  • New Product Development ProcessIdea generationScreeningBusiness analysis/Concept testingDevelopmentTest marketing Commercialization

  • New Product Screening ChecklistGeneral Characteristics of New Product/ServiceProfit potential Existing and potential competitionSize of overall marketLevel of investmentLevel of risk

  • New Product Sc