Chapter 37: Latin America 1945-Present

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Chapter 37: Latin America 1945-Present. Section 1: Forces Shaping Modern Latin America Section 2: Latin America, the U.S. and the World Section 3: Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean Section 4: Focus on Argentina and Brazil. Section 1: Forces Shaping Modern Latin America. Summary: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Chapter 37: Latin America 1945-Present

  • Chapter 37:Latin America 1945-PresentSection 1: Forces Shaping Modern Latin AmericaSection 2: Latin America, the U.S. and the WorldSection 3: Mexico, Central America and the CaribbeanSection 4: Focus on Argentina and Brazil

  • Section 1: Forces Shaping Modern Latin AmericaSummary:Social inequality, population growth and rapid urbanization all contributed to unrest in Latin America

  • Section 1: Forces Shaping Modern Latin AmericaLatin America has a history of inequalityA small group of people has always held most of the wealthOthers lived in povertyIn many nations, inequality, along with a rigid class structure, a swiftly growing population and urbanization, led to unrest

  • Section 1: Forces Shaping Modern Latin AmericaCatholic priests and nuns started a liberation theology movement that called for social justice and an end to poverty Most military dictators were against social reformThey said strict control would bring orderIn the 1960s and 1970s, rebels fought for a socialist revolution that would bring equality

  • Section 1: Forces Shaping Modern Latin AmericaAfter WWII, leaders worked to build economic developmentNew local industries cut the need for imported goodsHowever, many factories put out poor quality goodsFarming became big businessCompanies grew cash crops on the best farmlandsAs a result, more food had to be imported

  • Section 1: Forces Shaping Modern Latin AmericaIn the 1980s, Economies slowedGovernments cut spending, raised prices and welcomed foreign businessesMany Latin American economies picked up in the 1990s

  • Section 1: Forces Shaping Modern Latin AmericaIn Latin America, as in Africa, an urban migration brought changeIt broke up families and weakened cultural traditionsMany city women took jobs outside the homeSome women entered politicsWomen became a force for social change, working for better schools and health care

  • Section 2: Latin America, the U.S. and the WorldSummary:Throughout the 1900s, Latin American nations tried to limit US influence and exercise greater independence

  • Section 2: Latin America, the U.S. and the WorldAfter WWII, the U.S. wanted to keep communism out of the Western HemisphereIn 1948, it joined the countries of Latin America in the Organization of American States (OAS)Members pledged to promote democracy and human rightsEach nation promised to stay out of the affairs of the others

  • Section 2: Latin America, the U.S. and the WorldBefore WWII, the U.S. and the island nation of Cuba were friendlyThen in 1959, Fidel Castro led a communist revolt against a dictator that the U.S. government supportedCastro took control of Cuba and formed ties with the Soviet UnionCold War tensions flared when the Soviets placed nuclear missiles on Cuban bases

  • Section 2: Latin America, the U.S. and the WorldCastro tried to stir revolt in other landsIn response, the U.S. turned to a policy of intervention, or involvement in Latin AmericaU.S. money, arms and troops helped crush communist rebelsAt times, the aid went to harsh noncommunist rulersMany people spoke out against these U.S. policies

  • Section 2: Latin America, the U.S. and the WorldToday, Latin America has links throughout the worldVenezuela joined with Arab nations to set oil pricesBrazil worked with African lands to protect coffee pricesRegions signed pacts to end tariffs and allow free tradeThe Americas joined forces to control the drug trade and save the rain forests

  • Section 3: Mexico, Central America and the CaribbeanSummary:During the postwar era, several Central American countries were battered by civil wars, while Mexico had little turmoil

  • Section 3: Mexico, Central America and the CaribbeanAfter WWII, Mexico worked to cut foreign influenceIt built the second largest economy in Latin AmericaWhat had been a farm economy became a mostly urban, industrial one

  • Section 3: Mexico, Central America and the CaribbeanMexico enjoyed success, but faced troubles, tooIn the late 1970s, new oil fields and high energy prices meant economic boomWhen the 1980s brought world recession, a time when business is poor, oil prices fell and Mexico went into debtAlthough foreign factories were built to make use of cheap Mexican labor, there were never enough jobsThe gap between rich and poor remained

  • Section 3: Mexico, Central America and the CaribbeanCentral America, too, had gaps between rich and poorLeaders stole from the poor and killed those who spoke out against themCruelty, corrupt rule and poverty sparked civil wars in Nicaragua, Guatemala and El SalvadorBecause the U.S. saw most rebels as communist threats, it helped some military dictators to hold on to power

  • Section 3: Mexico, Central America and the CaribbeanAfter a period of harsh rule, the island of Haiti held free elections in 1990A priest, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, won the election but was exiled in a military coupThe U.S. helped to bring Aristide back to build a democracyIt was a hard job because Haiti was the poorest nation in Latin AmericaThe old ruling class did not care about human rightsPeople wondered if the new democracy could survive

  • Section 4: Focus on Argentina and Brazil

    Summary:History and geography have shaped Argentinas and Brazils efforts to develop stable governments and strong economies

  • Section 4: Focus on Argentina and Brazil

    Argentina and Brazil are the largest South American nationsEach has had its ups and downs while building democracy and a strong economy

  • Section 4: Focus on Argentina and Brazil

    In 1946, Argentina made Juan Peron presidentNationalists liked his ban on foreign-owned businessThe urban poor liked higher wages, strong labor unions and social reformsPeron, and his wife Eva worked to be popularEva helped the poor, building clinics and child-care centersTo gain votes for her husband, she helped women in Argentina win the vote

  • Section 4: Focus on Argentina and Brazil

    While Peron wooed the urban poor, he put down opposition to his strict ruleHis economic policies led to huge debts, and in 1955 he lost power in a military coup

  • Section 4: Focus on Argentina and Brazil

    In Brazil and Argentina, economic hardships led to military coupsMilitary leaders in both countries killed their criticsIn the 1980s, democracy returned to Argentina and Brazil through electionsIt has survived

  • Section 4: Focus on Argentina and Brazil

    The 1990s brought economic growthBrazil had learned it could not count on exports of rubber and coffeeIn the 1930s it began to diversify, or make different productsThe government built an inland capitalIt also settled new land and pushed development in the AmazonThis spurred economic growth and helped ease overcrowded cities, but hurt the rain forests

  • Section 4: Focus on Argentina and Brazil

    In Argentina, a good economy paid for new social programsThe country soon had the highest literacy rate in Latin AmericaStill, wealth belonged to the few