# Chapter 33. The Magnetic Field 1. Moving charges make a magnetic field 2.The magnetic field exerts a force on moving charges Thus moving charges exert

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• Chapter 33. The Magnetic Field 1. Moving charges make a magnetic field 2.The magnetic field exerts a force on moving charges Thus moving charges exert forces on each other (Biot Savart Law) 3.A collection of moving charges constitutes and electrical current 4.Currents exert forces and torques on each other
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• * * This isnt really true but pretend for the moment that it is.
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• Electric Field Magnetic Field q What are the magnitudes and directions of the electric and magnetic fields at this point? Assume q > 0 r Comparisons: both go like r -2, are proportional to q, have 4 in the denominator, have funny Greek letters Differences: E along r, B perpendicular to r and v
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• Electric Field points away from positive charge
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• Magnetic field is perpendicular to
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• Greek Letters Huh? These funny numbers are a consequence of us having decided to measure charge in Coulombs Later we will find:
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• Same result as:
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• The positive charge is moving straight out of the page. What is the direction of the magnetic field at the position of the dot? A.Left B.Right C.Down D.Up
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• A.Left B.Right C.Down D.Up The positive charge is moving straight out of the page. What is the direction of the magnetic field at the position of the dot?
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• Field near a point charge Field lines emerge from charges Iron filings align parallel to magnetic field Field lines do not end
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• Electric field due to a dipole - two opposite charges separated by a distance Magnetic field due to a single loop of current
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• Magnets are objects that have charges moving inside them Electrical currents
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• Does the compass needle rotate clockwise (cw), counterclockwise (ccw) or not at all? A.Clockwise B.Counterclockwise C.Not at all
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• A.Clockwise B.Counterclockwise C.Not at all Does the compass needle rotate clockwise (cw), counterclockwise (ccw) or not at all?
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• Does the compass needle feel a force from the charged rod? A.Attracted B.Repelled C.No force D.Attracted but very weakly Its complicated
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• Does the compass needle feel a force from the charged rod? A.Attracted B.Repelled C.No force D.Attracted but very weakly Its complicated
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• B = 1T in the y direction z x y 60 10 6 m/s in x-y plane What is the force on a moving electron? What is in this problem? A.60 B.30 C.72 and sunny
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• Cyclotron Motion Newtons Law Both a and F directed toward center of circle Equate
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• In this picture B is pointing into the page and q is positive. What changes if q is negative and B points out of the page A.Rotation changes to counter-clockwise B.There is no change C.Why do things always have to change?
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• In this picture B is pointing into the page and q is positive. What changes if q is negative and B points out of the page A.Rotation changes to counter-clockwise B.There is no change C.Why do things always have to change?
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• Some Examples Ionosphere at equator ITER fusion exp
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• Motion of a charged particle in crossed electric and magnetic fields. x y z. v E B Try these If v x =E y /B z force is zero and no acceleration Particle will move at a constant velocity in a direction perpendicular to both E and B
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• Where are you most likely to encounter E cross B motion? A.Your doctors office B.Your Kitchen C.The bridge of the Starship Enterprise
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• Where are you most likely to encounter E cross B motion? A.Your doctors office B.Your Kitchen C.The bridge of the Starship Enterprise Magnetron Electrons spiral out from the cathode K toward anode A. Potential energy is converted into radiation, f=2.45 GHz Radiation then converted into popcorn B-out of page B, V 0 and Slots in anode define radiation frequency
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• Current carrying wire Inside the wire there are stationary charges and moving charges. Metallic conductor Moving - free electrons Stationary - positive ions and bound electrons In any length of wire the number of positive and negative charges is essentially the same (unless the wire is charged). The wire can carry a current because the free electrons move.
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• Current, number density and velocity Consider a segment of length l, cross sectional area A A The segment has N free electrons Number density, n, of free electrons is a property of the material. For copper volume Suppose the free electrons have speed v. How long will it take all the electrons to leave the segment?
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• Current During a time interval t = l/v, a net charge Q = -eN flows through any cross section of the wire. The wire is thus carrying I The current is flowing in a direction opposite to that of v. A
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• How big is v for typical currents in copper? A.Close to the speed of light B.Supersonic C.About as fast as a Prius D. Glacial A
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• How big is v for typical currents in copper? A.Close to the speed of light B.Supersonic C.About as fast as a Prius D. Glacial A For a 1mm radius copper wire carrying 1 A of current
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• What is the force on those N electrons? Force on a single electron Force on N electrons Now use Lets make l a vector points parallel to the wire in the direction of the current when I is positive Force on wire segment:
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• Comments: Force is perpendicular to both B and l Force is proportional to I, B, and length of line segment Superposition: To find the total force on a wire you must break it into segments and sum up the contributions from each segment
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• What is the force on a rectangular loop? Net force is zero
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• Torque on a loop Plane of loop is tilted by angle with respect to direction of B. The loop wants to move so that its axis and B are aligned. Definition of torque
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• Nuclear magnetic resonance Basis of MRI magnetic resonance imaging
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• Magnetic Field due to a current Magnetic Field due to a single charge If many charges use superposition #2 q 2, v 2 #1 q 1, v 1 #3 q 3, v 3 r3r3 r2r2 r1r1 Where I want to know what B is
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• For moving charges in a wire, first sum over charges in each segment, then sum over segments
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• Summing over segments - integrating along curve I r Integral expression looks simple but..you have to keep track of two position vectors Biot Savart law which is where you want to know B which is the location of the line segment that is contributing to B. This is what you integrate over.
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• Magnetic field due to an infinitely long wire x z I Current I flows along z axis I want to find B at the point I will sum over segments at points
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• j 0 See lecture notes
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• r compare with E-field for a line charge
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• Forces on Parallel Wires Magnetic field due to #2 Evaluated at location of #1
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• Magnetic field due to #2 Evaluated at location of #1 Direction out of page for positive
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• What is the current direction in the loop? A.Out of the page at the top of the loop, into the page at the bottom. B.Out of the page at the bottom of the loop, into the page at the top.
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• A.Out of the page at the top of the loop, into the page at the bottom. B.Out of the page at the bottom of the loop, into the page at the top. What is the current direction in the loop?
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• Magnetic field due to a loop of current BzBz Contribution from bottom Contribution from top See derivation in book Note: if z >> R R Magnetic moment, Independent of loop shape
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• What is the current direction in this loop? And which side of the loop is the north pole? A.To the right in front, north pole on bottom B.To the left in front; north pole on bottom C.To the right in front, north pole on top D.To the left in front; north pole on top
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• What is the current direction in this loop? And which side of the loop is the north pole? A.To the right in front, north pole on bottom B.To the left in front; north pole on bottom C.To the right in front, north pole on top D.To the left in front; north pole on top
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• Gauss Law: Coulombs Law implies Gauss Law and conservative E- ##### Chapter 21 Magnetic Induction. Electric and magnetic forces both act only on particles carrying an electric charge Moving electric charges create a magnetic
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