Chapter 3

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Chapter 3. Key Issue 1: Why do people migrate?. Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration. 19 th century used data from England to outline a series of “laws” explaining patterns of migration Migration impacted by push/ pull factors Unfavorable conditions push people out of a place - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Chapter 3


Chapter 3

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Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration

19th century used data from England to outline a series of “laws” explaining patterns of migration Migration impacted by push/ pull

factors Unfavorable conditions push people

out of a place Attractive opportunities pull people

to a place Economic factors are main cause

of migration Most migrants move only short

distance Each migration flow procedures a

compensating counter-flow Long-distance migrants go to

centers of commerce and industry (economic opportunity)

Urban residents are less migratory than those from rural areas

Factors such as gender, age, and socio-economic level influence likelihood to migrate

Three categories: Why migrants move Distance they typically

move Characteristics of migrants

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Gravity Model of Spatial Interaction

Applied to migration Larger places attract more

migrants than smaller places do.

Destinations that are more distant have a weaker pull effect than do closer opportunities if the same caliber. Aka closer places attract

more migrants than more distant places.

Mathematically Multiplication of two

populations divided by the distance b/w them

Gravity Model proposes an equation that balances distance and size in trying to predict spatial patterns

Limitations Does not factor

selectivity factors Age Education level

Human behavior does not always fit into predicted patterns

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Migration: long-distance move to a new


Emigration: moving from a particular location

( out-migration)

Immigration: moving to a particular location


Migration Stream: Pathway from a place of origin to a

destination Migration counterstream: people

moving back to the place of origin from the new place

Gross Migration: total # of migrants moving into

and out of a place, region, or country.

Net Migration: gain or loss in the total

population of that area as a result of migration. Net in-migration

More immigrants than emigrants

Net out-migration More emigrants than


Mobility: ability to move from one place

to another, either permanently or temporarily.

Circulation: short term, repetitive, or

cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis, such as daily, monthly, or annually.

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Why is it important?

Data has social, political, and economic consequences:

Out-mig. of highly trained professionals from Cuba, leaves Cuba with providing health care.

Low-labor costs have drawn low-skilled in-migrant workers Can cause political issues

• Example, the U.S. accusations that immigrants are “stealing” American jobs

Geographers concerned with why people migrate

Changing scale has had major implications on migration

With globalization, why do people still migrate?

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I. Reasons for Migrating

Most people migrate for economic reasonsCultural and Environmental factors also

induce migration Not as frequent as economic factors

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A push factor induces people to move out of their present location

A pull factor induces people to move into a new location

Three kinds of push/pull factors: Economic Cultural Environmental

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Economic Push/Pull Factors

Push Factors Not enough job opportunities

Pull Factors Areas with lots of natural

resources Job opportunities

Areas like US and Canada attracted immigrants because of economic opportunities American dream

Places that one people emigrated from, like Scotland, are now immigration “hot spots” due to new natural resources discovered.

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Cultural Push/Pull Factors

Forced international Migration Slavery Political instability

Recent Example: Lebanese and Kurds

Scattered due to war and civil strife

Lebanon lost a large # of population to migrations

Kurds never established autonomous state

Many left due to military aggression, and persecution

Other examples Jews Deportation of Armenians

after WWI Palestinians after

establishment of Israel.

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Environmental Factors

Pull Factors Attractive locations

Mediterranean coast of France Alps Rocky Mountains

climate Arizona

people with Asthma, allergies

Flordia beach, warm winters

Thanks to improved technology people can live anywhere Air conditioning Transportation communications

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Environmental Push Factors

Adverse physical conditions Flooding

Hurricane Katrina

Natural Disaster Japanese earthquake

Nuclear radiation Irish Potato Famine

Drought Great Depression Migration Sahel region of Northern


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Great Depression Migration

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Intervening Obstacles

Where migrants go is not always their desired destination Blocked by intervening obstacle

In the past, mainly environmental Migration was on horse or

foot example: people trying to

reach California during the gold rush often couldn’t cross Rocky Mountains, Great plains, or desert.

European Migration to America hindered by crossing the Atlantic Ocean

Sometime were told they were going to America, but weren’t taken there!!

Today: Transportation allows

for more migration Trains, cars, airplanes

More political issues Passports documentation

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II. Distance of Migration

Ravenstein’s laws Most migrants relocate

short distance and remain within same country

Long-distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of economic activity

Migration Internal migration

Movement within a country Types:

Interregional Intraregional

International migration Permanent movement from

country to country

Voluntary/ Forced Voluntary- choice to move Forced- pushed from land

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Internal Migration

Permanent movement within the same country Shorter distances Easier cultural


Two Types:

Interregional movement from one

region to another region within the same country From Bluffton, SC to

Boston, Mass)

Intraregional movement within one

region From a city to suburb Example:

• From Bluffton, SC to Hilton Head, SC

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Historical Internal Migration : U.S.

1st wave Westward settlement

Manifest destiny From Eastern seaboard

to West Coast Rural-to-urban

Industrialization cause New jobs

2nd wave 1940s- 1970s African-Americans migrating

from rural south To cities in South, North, and

West Mechanization of cotton Defense jobs (WWI, WWII)

3rd wave Cold War jobs Emergence of Sunbelt West/ Mid-west growth too

Economic opportunity Air conditioning Cheap land

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Internal Forced Migration

“Trail of Tears” Cherokee Indians forced to leave Georgia for Oklahoma

China Mao’s cultural revolution 10-17 million

South Africa Apartheid, 1960-1980 3.6 million

Forced “Eco-Migration” Bangladesh floodplain

settlement of 1960’s Ethiopia famine of 1984-


New Examples:Yemen

running out of waterChina

desertificationLouisiana/ Alaska

rising sea levels

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International Migration

Permanent movement from one country to another Two types:

Voluntary the migrant has

chosen to move• Economic reasons

Forced migrant has been

compelled to move by cultural factors

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International Voluntary Migration

Usually occurs due to high wage differentials, job opportunities, family links, unemployment conditions, etc.

Temporary labor migration- guest workers

Transnational migrants: set up homes and/or work in more than one nation-state Mexican migrants Asian migrants

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International Forced Migration: Refugees

Refugees are a case of forced migration

Refugee: People who have been forced

to migrate from their homes and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.

individuals who cross national boundaries to seek safety asylum

14 million refugees in 2007

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Large refugee movement from Central Asia and Afghanistan after Sept. 11th

Two largest groups of international refugees: Palestinians Afghans

Two largest groups of internal refugees Sudan Colombia

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Major Regions of Refugees

Sub-Saharan Africa Tribal Ethnic Conflicts

Rwanda, Congo Sudan

Darfur Religious/ ethnic tensions

War-related Zaire, Tanzania, Uganda,

Liberia, Sierra Leone, Angola, and Burundi

The Middle East Palestinians Kurds

Europe Fall of Yugoslavia/ Balkans

7 million refugees

Southeast Asia Vietnam Cambodia

30,000 refugees Burma/ Myanmar

Dictatorial government

South Asia Afghan refugees Sri Lanka

1 million

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Internally Displaced Person

IDPs: Individuals who are uprooted within the boundaries of

their own country because of global conflict or human rights abuse

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Zelinsky Model of Migration Transition

Identified by Wilbur Zelinsky Change in migration

pattern in a society that results from social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.

Stage 1 High CBR/ High CDR Daily or seasonal mobility in

search of food Searching for local necessities temporary

Internal migration Stage 2

High CBR/ dropping CDR High rate of Natural Increase Overtaxing resources/ limited

opportunities push out immigrants

Like decline in death rate, migration a result of technological change

International Migration and Interregional Migration

Rural areas to cities

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Migration Transition Model

Stage 3 & 4 Slowing growth rate

Result of social change Fewer children

Principal destinations for international migrants

International Migration Societies in stage 3 & 4

become the destinations of migrations from stage 2 countries

Stage 4: Less emigration, more intraregional migration

From cities to suburbs

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III. Characteristics of Migrants

Gender Ravenstein’s Laws

Most long-distance migrants are male

Most long-distance migrants are adult individuals

Reality Reversed in 1990s women now

55% of U.S. immigrants Mexican Immigration

Similar patterns• Up until 1980’s 85% of Mexican

immigrants men• Now women majority

Family Status Most immigrants young adults

Ravenstein right! 40% of U.S. immigrants today

between 25-39 years old Increasing # are children

16% under 15 years old

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Migration Selectivity

Decision to migrate often fits into predictable pattern based on age, income, and other socio-economic factors

Migration selectivity Evaluation of how likely

someone is to migrate based on personal, social, and economic factors

Age Most influential factor in

migration selectivity Americans are most likely to

move between 18 and 30

Education The more educated people

are the more likely they are to make long-distance moves

Brain-drain Educated people leave

KY- Appalachian region Brain-gain