# Chapter 20 Foundations of Physics. Electricity and Magnetism  20 Series and Parallel Circuits  20 Analysis of Circuits  20 Electric Power, AC, and

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• Slide 1
• Chapter 20 Foundations of Physics
• Slide 2
• Electricity and Magnetism 20 Series and Parallel Circuits 20 Analysis of Circuits 20 Electric Power, AC, and DC Electricity Electric Circuits and Power
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• Objectives Recognize and sketch examples of series and parallel circuits. Describe a short circuit and why a short circuit may be a dangerous hazard. Calculate the current in a series or parallel circuit containing up to three resistances. Calculate the total resistance of a circuit by combining series or parallel resistances. Describe the differences between AC and DC electricity. Calculate the power used in an AC or DC circuit from the current and voltage.
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• Vocabulary Terms series circuit parallel circuit short circuit network circuit circuit analysis power Kirchhoffs voltage law voltage drop direct current (DC) alternating current (AC) kilowatt Kirchhoffs current law horsepower power factor circuit breaker watt kilowatt-hour
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• Test questions What are the circuit symbols for a a. Batteryf. Fixed resistor b. Light bulbg. Capacitor c. Motorh. Buzzer d. Switchi. Ammeter e. Variable resistor
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• Test Questions 2. Define a series circuit 3. Show the formula depicting five resistors in a series circuit 4. Describe Ohms Law 5. Draw and Calculate the total resistance in a series circuit containing two 1.5 ohm light bulbs, a battery, a 1 ohm buzzer, a switch, and a 5 ohm motor
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• Series and Parallel Circuits Key Question: How do series and parallel circuits work? *
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• Series and Parallel Circuits In series circuits, current can only take one path. The amount of current is the same at all points in a series circuit.
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• Adding resistances in series Each resistance in a series circuit adds to the total resistance of the circuit. R total = R 1 + R 2 + R 3... Total resistance (ohms) Individual resistances ( )
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• Total resistance in a series circuit Light bulbs, resistors, motors, and heaters usually have much greater resistance than wires and batteries.
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• Calculate current How much current flows in a circuit with a 1.5-volt battery and three 1 ohm resistances (bulbs) in series?
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• Practice Draw a series circuit containing 3 light bulbs and a switch. If each light bulb has a resistance of 1.5 ohms what is the current in the circuit run by a 3.0V battery? What happens to the total resistance as the current passes through each light? What do you predict will happen to the brightness of the bulbs as each additional bulb is added to the circuit?
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• Voltage in a series circuit Each separate resistance creates a voltage drop as the current passes through. As current flows along a series circuit, each type of resistor transforms some of the electrical energy into another form of energy Ohms law is used to calculate the voltage drop across each resistor.
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• If three 1.5 ohm light bulbs are wired in series what necessary voltage would be required to push.5amps of current through the circuit? Define parallel circuit Describe the current and voltage in a parallel circuit Describe Kirchoffs current law How is current calculated in a parallel circuit What determines the current in each branch?
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• Series and Parallel Circuits In parallel circuits the current can take more than one path. Because there are multiple branches, the current is not the same at all points in a parallel circuit.
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• Series and Parallel Circuits Sometimes these paths are called branches. The current through a branch is also called the branch current. When analyzing a parallel circuit, remember that the current always has to go somewhere. The total current in the circuit is the sum of the currents in all the branches. At every branch point the current flowing out must equal the current flowing in. This rule is known as Kirchhoffs current law.
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• Voltage and current in a parallel circuit In a parallel circuit the voltage is the same across each branch because each branch has a low resistance path back to the battery. The amount of current in each branch in a parallel circuit is not necessarily the same. The resistance in each branch determines the current in that branch.
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• 16. What are the two advantages of a parallel circuit? 17. Describe a short circuit
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• Advantages of parallel circuits Parallel circuits have two big advantages over series circuits: 1. Each device in the circuit sees the full battery voltage. 2. Each device in the circuit may be turned off independently without stopping the current flowing to other devices in the circuit.
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• Short circuit A short circuit is a parallel path in a circuit with zero or very low resistance. Short circuits can be made accidentally by connecting a wire between two other wires at different voltages. Short circuits are dangerous because they can draw huge amounts of current.
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• 18. Calculate current Two bulbs with different resistances are connected in parallel to batteries with a total voltage of 3 volts. Calculate the total current supplied by the battery.
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• l 19. Describe the resistance in a parallel circuit 20. Write the formula for calculating total resistance in a parallel circuit
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• Resistance in parallel circuits Adding resistance in parallel provides another path for current, and more current flows. When more current flows for the same voltage, the total resistance of the circuit decreases. This happens because every new path in a parallel circuit allows more current to flow for the same voltage.
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• Adding resistance in parallel circuits 21. A circuit contains a 2 ohm resistor and a 4 ohm resistor in parallel. Calculate the total resistance of the circuit.
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• Analysis of Circuits Key Question: How do we analyze network circuits? *
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• What are the three primary laws for circuit analysis Define network circuit What are the steps for solving circuit problems
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• Analysis of Circuits All circuits work by manipulating currents and voltages. The process of circuit analysis means figuring out what the currents and voltages in a circuit are, and also how they are affected by each other. Three basic laws are the foundation of circuit analysis.
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• Three circuit laws
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• Voltage divider circuit
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• Voltage divider A circuit divides any supplied voltage by a ratio of the resistors. Output voltage (volts) resistor ratio ( ) V 0 = R 1 V i R 1 + R 2 Input voltage (volts)
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• Solving circuit problems Identify what the problem is asking you to find. Assign variables to the unknown quantities. Make a large clear diagram of the circuit. Label all of the known resistances, currents, and voltages. Use the variables you defined to label the unknowns. You may need to combine resistances to find the total circuit resistance. Use multiple steps to combine series and parallel resistors.
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• Solving circuit problems If you know the total resistance and current, use Ohms law as V = IR to calculate voltages or voltage drops. If you know the resistance and voltage, use Ohms law as I = V R to calculate the current. An unknown resistance can be found using Ohms law as R = V I, if you know the current and the voltage drop through the resistor. Use Kirchhoffs current and voltage laws as necessary.
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• Solving circuit problems A bulb with a resistance of 1 is to be used in a circuit with a 6-volt battery. The bulb requires 1 amp of current. If the bulb were connected directly to the battery, it would draw 6 amps and burn out instantly. To limit the current, a resistor is added in series with the bulb. What size resistor is needed to make the current 1 amp?
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• Network circuits In many circuits, resistors are connected both in series and in parallel. Such a circuit is called a network circuit. There is no single formula for adding resistors in a network circuit. For very complex circuits, electrical engineers use computer programs that can rapidly solve equations for the circuit using Kirchhoffs laws.
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• Calculate using network circuits 25. Three bulbs, each with a resistance of 3, are combined in the circuit in the diagram Three volts are applied to the circuit. Calculate the current in each of the bulbs. 26.From your calculations, do you think all three bulbs will be equally bright?
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• 27.Describe Power in reference to electricity 28. How