# Chapter 19 Magnetism and Electromagnetism. Magnets (19.1) 19.1 ► Magnets contain a mineral called magnetite also called lodestones ► Magnetism= the

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Interactions between magnetic poles ► ► Magnetic poles that are alike REPEL each other and magnetic poles that are unlike ATTRACT each other ► ► If you break a magnet in half what happens??   Two separate magnets or does it break into the south pole and north pole…

### Text of Chapter 19 Magnetism and Electromagnetism. Magnets (19.1) 19.1 ► Magnets contain a mineral called...

Chapter 19 Magnetism and Electromagnetism Magnets (19.1) 19.1 Magnets contain a mineral called magnetite also called lodestones Magnetism= the attraction of a magnet for another object Any shaped magnet has two ends that are each called a magnetic pole One pole will always point north One pole will always point south Interactions between magnetic poles Magnetic poles that are alike REPEL each other and magnetic poles that are unlike ATTRACT each other If you break a magnet in half what happens?? Two separate magnets or does it break into the south pole and north pole No, since magnetic field lines are continuous both inside and outside the magnetic you get two north poles and two south poles. Magnetic Fields Magnetic Field= the region of magnetic force around a magnet ( allows magnets to interact without touching) Magnetic Field Lines= map out the magnetic field around a magnet. *they spread out from one pole, curve around a magnet and return to the other pole (see figure 5 in book) The magnetic field can be seen by placing the magnet under a piece of paper with small iron filings on top. The filings line up in the shape of the field, as shown above. Inside a magnet Why do some materials have strong fields and some dont? The strength depends on the spinning and orbiting motion of the electrons ( which make up lots of tiny magnets) Magnetic domain= billions of atoms that all have magnetic fields that are lined up in the same way ( all face north pole at same time etc.) In a magnetized material all or most of the domains are arranged in the same direction. They are ALIGNED A material that shows strong magnetic effects is said to be a ferromagnetic material ferrum means iron in Latin Making Magnets A magnet can be made from a ferromagnetic material. You can do this by placing an unmagnetized material in a strong magnetic field or by rubbing it with a strong magnet. Example: paper clips can be attracted to a magnetic material when placed in their magnetic field Permanent magnet = A magnet made of a material that keeps its magnetism. How do you destroy a magnet?? Magnets lose their magnetism when their domains become randomly arranged or unaligned. Ways to destroy it 1. Drop it or strike it hard (knocking out of alignment) 2. Heat it to a high temperature (particles vibrate fast) What happens when you break a magnet? When you break a magnet you create another magnet with its own north and south pole. Magnetic Earth (19.2) Compass= a device that has a magnetized needle that can spin freely. - Compass needle usually point North. Earth as a magnet The Earth has an immense magnetic field surrounding it, just as there is a magnetic field around a bar magnet! This is why a compass works- the magnetized needle aligns itself with the Earths magnetic field Magnetic declination The geographic south and north pole is different from the magnetic south and north pole- the angle between the two points ( geographic and magnetic poles) is called the magnetic declination * This changes over time because the magnetic poles move slowly!! Magnetosphere Earths magnetic field affects the movements of electrically charge particles in space and on Earth! Van Allen belts= Two doughnut shaped regions above the Earths surface. These regions contain electrons and protons traveling very fast. Not dangerous to us! Solar wind= a stream of electrically charged particles flowing at high speeds from the sun. The solar wind helps to shape the Earths magnetosphere The magnetosphere is constantly changing due to solar wind! Effect of Earths magnetic fields Because the Earth produces strong magnetic fields it can also make magnets! -Causes domains to line up in the same direction Earths magnetic field also acts on rocks that contain magnetic material creating a permanent record when the molten rock hardens. Electric Current and magnetic fields (19.3) Electric charge- electrons are negatively charged(-) and protons are positively charged (+) Electric current= the flow of charge through a material. The amount of charge is measured in the ampere or amp or A The number of amps tells the amount of charge flowing past a given point each second **An electric current produces a magnetic field!! Moving charge and magnetism All magnetism is caused by the movement of charges. Electric circuits Electric Circuit= a complete path through which electric charges can flow. Current ONLY flows through an electric circuit! A circuit needs three things.. 1. a source of electrical energy 2. devices that are run by electrical energy ( ex. Radio, computer, light bulb) 3. connected by conducting wires and a switch Conductors and Insulators Conductor= electric currents flow freely through these materials and are loosely bound to their atoms ( ex. Copper, silver, iron, and aluminum) ( ex. Copper, silver, iron, and aluminum) Insulator= a different kind of material in which charges are not able to move freely and the atoms are bound tightly together! Electrical Resistance Resistor= uses electrical energy as it interferes with or resists the flow of charge Resistance= the opposition to the movement of charges flowing through a material Resistance of the material depends on its atomic structure ( close together vs. spread out) Thomas Edison used resistance (current) when he developed the electric light bulb- he used Tungsten because it can get hot enough to glow without melting! Superconductor= a material that has no electrical resistance- this means that there is NO loss of energy! Very low temperatures are required for a superconductor Why would using superconductors reduce wasted energy?? Electromagnets Solenoids= A current carrying coil of wire with many loops, A solenoid creates a magnetic field that can be turned off and on by switching the current off and on! The north and south poles change with the direction of the current Multiplying Magnetism A solenoid with an ferromagnetic core is called an Electromagnet The temporary field of an electromagnet is produced by the current in the wire and the magnetized core An electromagnet is a strong magnet that can be turned off and on How do you increase the strength of an electromagnet? 1. Increase the current in the solenoid 2. Add more loops of wire to the solenoid 3. Wind the coils around the solenoid closer together 4. Using a stronger ferromagnetic core Recording Information Electromagnets are used to record information onto audiotapes, videotapes, computer disks and credit cards Magnetized particles are put into a pattern that can later be translated into information/sound/video.

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